The Relevance of Hue in the Ancient Egyptian Art

The Relevance of Hue in the Ancient Egyptian Art

Introduction

Colour, as described by Elliot et al. (2011) usually takes into account the silent visual form of information, which is used in identifying and distinguishing explicit objects. Additionally, colour can be termed as the quality of a substance or an object in relation to the light that is reflected by the object.  According to Khoroshikh et al. (2012), colour is virtually determined by measurement of hue, saturation, and tone. These have been described as the three main attributes of colour. The use of these colour attributes have been used in various setting in conveying specific messages. One of the settings where these attributes have been used is depicting the art history by Andrew Bardsley. Taking this into consideration, this essay seeks to explore the relevance of hue in the art of history timeline image by Andrew Bardsley

Relevance of Hue in Ancient Egypt Art

Hue, as one of the main attributes of colour typically involves the classification of colours such as red, yellow, and blue among other colours. As explained by Khoroshikh et al. (2012), hue usually has significant relevance when it comes explaining the art of history timeline. Precisely, in relation to the art of history timeline image by Andrew Bardsley, it can be see that the aspect of hue is relevance to the ancient Egyptian art, which spanned from the period between 3000BC to 1000BC.  Taking this into account, as noted by Hodge (2006), the ancient Egyptian art have fascinated people over the last many years. In this view, the ancient Egyptian art has inspired the art of other cultures including the Greeks as well as the Romans. From the art of history timeline image by Andrew Bardsley, it can be deduced that orange depicts the hue of the ancient Egyptian art.  This shows that there is a significance correlation between orange and the ancient Egyptian art.

According to Khoroshikh et al. (2012), in the Ancient Egyptians culture, orange typically represents the sun as well as its life-giving properties. Taking this into consideration, orange was commonly used colour in the ancient Egyptian owing to the fact that it used to represent the heavens themselves. Additionally, as noted by Hodge (2006), in the ancient Egyptian culture, orange used to serve as a dimensional substitute for gold, and was highly regarded as one of the symbolic that was eternal as well as imperishable. Additionally in the ancient Egyptian culture, orange conveyed a wide range of silent messages. Taking this into account, this is evident in the numerous paintings in the monuments, tombs, and temples of the ancient Egyptians. Therefore, the use of the orange colour to represent the ancient Egyptian art as depicted by Andrew Bardsley in his art of history timeline image is relevant to a considerable extent.

As depicted by Elliot et al. (2011), it is crucial to associate hue to the history of art of owing to the fact that it impacts significantly towards the process as well as decision of colour.  The attribute of hue usually acts as one of the main driving forces of the physiology as well as social-psychology of the individuals as well as cultures. Additional, through hue, there is a perception created in relation to the environment as well as atmosphere that a particular colour creates.  In light of this, it can be deduced that the impact of hue ultimately stirs up a psychological effect, while promoting emotions. This is no exception when it comes to the presentation of orange colour in the ancient Egyptian art. In this view, through using orange colour in the art of history timeline by Andrew Bardsley, the audience can be able to relate the colour with the ancient Egyptian culture. This implies that the orange creates a significant identity of the ancient Egyptian colour.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is deducible that that hue, as an attribute of colour plays a significant role when it comes to representing the ancient Egyptian art.  Taking this into consideration, it can be noted from the orange used to serve as a dimensional substitute for gold, and was highly regarded as one of the symbolic that was eternal as well as imperishable. This explains why it was used in paintings of walls of monuments, tombs and temples. Therefore, the use of orange colour as established in the essay has had significant meaning in regards to the ancient Egyptian art as depicted in the art of history timeline by Andrew Bardsley.

 

 

References

Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2011). Color psychology: Effects of perceiving colour on psychological functioning in humans. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1), 95.

Hodge, S. (2006). Ancient Egyptian Art. Heinemann-Raintree Library.

Khoroshikh, V. V., Ivanova, V. Y., & Kulikov, G. A. (2012). The effect of unconscious color hue saturation on the emotional state of humans. Human Physiology, 38(2), 129-136.

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What is work for?

What is work for?

The question of what is work has sparked various elucidations since time immemorial. Nonetheless, Karl Marx explains that work is satisfaction of needs.  Taking this into account, it a fact that life typically entails a wide range of activities including drinking, eating, clothing, and habitation among others. In this view, it can be argued that the fist historical act of human being is the production of means of satisfying these needs. This is the production of material itself.   In light of this, over the last many years, human beings have been engaging in a wide range of activities for the purpose of sustaining the human life.

Notwithstanding the fact that work is the satisfaction of human needs. Karl Marx argues that there is more to that. Taking this into consideration, the satisfaction of human needs is associated with the mode production.  The mode of production typically describes the manner in which a society organises re satisfaction of human needs.  In this perspective, the manner in which a society organise the satisfaction of needs typically has a significant impact on how the overall society is organised.  This is mostly in terms of class, status, as well as identity among other metrics. This implies that a change in the society typically changes the organisation of society proportionally.  Two modes of production have characterised the pre-modern work societies. These are the slave mode of production as well as feudal mode production.

As regards to the slavery mode of production, the satisfaction of human needs is usually organised on antique work society.  In light of this, the economic activity is not based on the urban economy, but agriculture.  In this mode of production, slavery is common, which represent the most radical rural degradation of labour imaginable.  This is due to the deprivation of human beings their social rights as well as legal assimilations.  An example of slavery mode of production was the agrarian labour, which entailed bulk of slaves to work on agricultural plantations. On the other hand, when it comes to the feudal mode of production, the majority of the workforce was peasantry. The means of transporting goods was still limited to a considerable extent owing to the fact that it was still waterways. Additionally, under feudal mode of production, political authority as well as protection is largely tied to economic exploitation based o a chain of independence.

Besides, the slavery and the feudal mode of production is the capitalist mode of production. The capitalist mode of production does not necessarily focus on immediate satisfaction of human needs, but for making profit.  The main logic behind the capitalist mode of production is the commodification, where goods, services, ideas, and knowledge have price tags.  Expansion of capitalist implies that new sectors or industries now have price tags. This is what has yield industrial and post-industrial societies.  According to Bell (1976), industrial society has been regarded as the coordination of machines as well as men when it comes to production of goods.  On the other hand, Bell (1976) has indicateed that Post-industrial society is typically organised around knowledge for the aim of social control as well as directing change and innovation.  As result, there is development of new social relationships as well as new structures that can be managed politically.

One of the main characteristics of post-industrial society is that majority of the labour force is usually not engaged in agriculture or manufacturing activities. Instead, the labour force is highly concentrated in services such as trade, finance, transport, recreation, health, education, research, as well as government.  Additionally, post industrial society has been found to be organised around knowledge, for the aim of social control.  Knowledge advocated in the post-industrial society also helps in directing innovation as well as change which requires substantial levels of coordination.  It has been established that over the last few years, most countries in the OECD are now moving from manufacturing sector to service sector. For instance, taking Australia into consideration, it has been seen to show reduction in value added in GDP in regards to manufacturing and agriculture, and increase service industry. Precisely, the value added to GDP from the agriculture sector was 2.4% in 2012 and 3.5% in 1996.  The value added to GDP from the manufacturing sector was 7.1% in 2012 and 13.5% in 1996.  This shows decrease in value added to GDP from the two sectors. However, when it comes to service industry, the value to GDP was 30.6% in 2012 and 25.7% in 1996. This shows that the society is moving from industrialised to post-industrialised mode of production particularly when it comes to the OECD countries.

 

 

References

Bell, D. (1976) The Coming of Post-industrial Society. A Venture in Social Forecasting. With a New Introd. by the Author. Basic Books Incorporated.

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Community Policing as a Crime Prevention Strategy

Community Policing as a Crime Prevention Strategy

The complexity of security over the last few years have gone beyond formal policing systems, which have been seen to ineffective to a considerable extent (Newman & Clarke, 2016).  This is particularly when it comes to organised gangs, which have been found to increase the crime rate in the country. While there are various strategies that have been adopted to prevent crime, the most common ones include social prevention methods, preventive policing, and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). This paper explores community policing as one of the preventive policing strategy, and how it could have been used in preventing the Kings Cross Shooting incident.

Community policing has been described by Cordner (2014, p.149) as one of the policing strategies that focus on the police building ties as well as working closes with the communities. Taking this into consideration, community policing typically requires police to inherit a proactive approach when it comes to addressing public safety concerns.  This sentiment has been echoed by Miller et al. (2013), who have opined that community policing usually shares the notion that the police and the members of the community must work together in defining as well as developing solutions to various problems. One of the main rationales behind community involvement, as elucidated by Rocque et al. (2012) is the belief that police officers alone cannot be in a position creating and maintaining safe communities. It has been argued by various schools of thoughts that through opening themselves to the input of the community, police are able to become more knowledgeable regarding various concerns of the society.  Despite the fact that community policing is used in intervention of a wide range of crimes within the society, Newman and Clarke (2016) have elucidated that it a plays a fundamental role in preventing crimes that are related to gang violence.

According to Crawford (2013), coordinated intervention by law enforcement and the community has been found to reduce the likelihood of youths becoming involved in gang activities. This assertion is line with that of Schaefer and Morabito (2010, p.571), who has posited that involvement of police agencies, community groups, educators, and parents is fundamental when it comes to the success of community policing. A study by Terpstra (2011, p.101) found that communities in which gang activities are prevalent usually have high concentrations of poverty as well as joblessness. Besides, in these communities, there is typically poor coordination of prevention measures among the local agencies together with the community organisations.  In light of this, it has been highlighted by various media reports that implementing the community policing policy addresses such problems through a comprehensive approach that links the members of the community and the government when it comes to providing positive opportunities as well as demonstrating clear consequences for the young people who are risk of gang involvement (Tilley & Sidebottom, 2017).

When it comes to the Kings Cross Shooting, the use of community policing would have been the most suitable strategy of preventing the incidence. In this view, community policing would have made it possible for the police officers to be familiar with the members of the gang before the incidence. From this perspective, through community policing, it could have been possible for the police officers to know about the members of the gang, as well as ways of preventing them in conducting crimes such as through arrests as well as rehabilitation. From the incident, it was been established that the police knew the 14 years old driver since the time he eight. Nonetheless, the police were not aware about other members of the gang that were available in the vehicle.  Redfern, as depicted by the mainstream media is characterised by high levels of poverty, and thus perhaps explain why the gangs were all from the area. In such areas, just as aforementioned, community policing usually works perfectly as most young people are at high risk of engaging in gang activities. With community policing in place, it would have been possible for the police agents to reduce the formation of activities of the gang. Through community policing, it could have been possible to educate the members of the community on the negative impacts on crime. This would have reduced the number of youth joining crime gangs. Besides, it would have been possible for the police to monitor various gang activities within the area. This implies that for the Kings Cross Shooting, police could have not only prevented the gang from committing the incident, where people were injured, but also preventing the theft of the car.

Notwithstanding the fact that community policing can to a considerable help in combating crime such as the Kings Cross Shooting incident, the strategy have various limitations, which can compromise its effectiveness. Nonetheless, the main limitation of community policing as explained by Miller et al. (2013) is the inhibited citizen involvement. On this, despite the fact that effective community policing usually involves citizen involvement, most citizens do no not like getting involved in community policing unless it affects them on a personal level. Besides, fears of possible recursions such as victimisation also prevent most members of the community from engaging actively in community policing (Schaefer & Morabito 2010, p.571). As a result, it becomes hard for the police officers to combat crime in a specific area.  Therefore, despite the fact that the Kings Cross Shooting incident would have been prevented through community policing, without involvement of the members of the community, it could be hard to achieve the desire results.

Conclusively, it can be deduced from the above that community policing is one of the most effective strategies that can help in preventing crimes. This is particularly when it comes to gang crimes. Through community policing, it has been established that police agencies and members of the community usually come together for the purpose of preventing crime rates.  This strategy could have significantly helped in preventing the Kings Cross Shooting incident. However, the limitation of this strategy is that most members of the community do not like getting involved in community policing for fear of being victimised. Nonetheless, with more education programs in the community, members of community are likely to increase their participation, which will see the rate of crimes reduce to a considerable extent.

 

 

References

Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook of police and policing, 148-171.

Crawford, A. (Ed.). (2013). Crime prevention policies in comparative perspective. Routledge.

Miller, L., Hess, K., & Orthmann, C. (2013). Community policing: Partnerships for problem solving. Nelson Education.

Newman, G., & Clarke, R. V. (2016). Rational choice and situational crime prevention: Theoretical foundations. Routledge.

Rocque, M., Welsh, B. C., & Raine, A. (2012). Biosocial criminology and modern crime prevention. Journal of Criminal Justice40(4), 306-312.

Schaefer Morabito, M. (2010). Understanding community policing as an innovation: Patterns of adoption. Crime & Delinquency56(4), 564-587.

Terpstra, J. (2011). Governance and accountability in community policing. Crime, law and social change55(2-3), 87-104.

Tilley, N., & Sidebottom, A. (Eds.). (2017). Handbook of crime prevention and community safety. Taylor & Francis.

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Global Fashion

Global Fashion

Introduction

The global fashion industry has witnessed a significant growth over the last couple of years. This has been fuelled by various factors including globalisation, advancement in technology, as well as changing consumer tastes and preferences. Taking this into consideration, this paper seeks to explore the global fashion industry in relation to the fashion systems, fashion industry, economy of fashion, ethics of fashion, and politics of fashion. This paper also looks at the impact of fashion law upon the global business of fashion.

Fashion system

A fashion industry as elucidated by Craik (2003) refers to a structure, organisation as well as processes employed for the purpose of conceiving, creating, distributing, retaining, and consuming fashion. In light of this, the fashion system typically embodies the entire supply chain of fashion. This implies that it does not only include the individual components, but also the various methods adopted in enabling and realising all the activities in the supply chain. According to Joy et al. (2012), a fashion system takes into account a concept where clothes usually function as a symbol that represents a wide range of social markers such as status, personality, gender, fashionabilty, social group allegiance, as well as sexuality among others.

A fashion system, as explicated by Bhardwaj and Fairhurst (2010) has been found to encompass a combination of various elements. These include codified types of apparel, symbolic and economic exchange values, set criteria for wearing combining garments, social statuses and meanings attached to apparel, and methods of attaching identities to apparel. Fashion system can be categorised into two broad perspectives. These are the Eurocentric fashion system and non-western fashion system. In regards to the Eurocentric fashion system, it involves usually depicts the European culture as well as the history in regards to the exclusion of a wider view of the world. In this light, Eurocentric fashion system typically entails aspects such Paris fashion, which represents modernity as well as industrialisation. On the other hand, when it comes to non-western fashion system, it involves fashion that is not part of the Eurocentric system. In most cases, non-western fashion system usually represents the African cultures. Despite the fact that non-western fashion system does not emphasise on modernity, it typically has its own status symbols as well as identifiers.

Fashion industry

According to Craik (2003), the fashion industry is the industry that deals with making clothes.  In light of this, the fashion industry is considerably based on the functions of different individuals whom comprise it. These include factory workers, designers, tailors, salespersons, fit model, textile manufacturers, sketch artists, as well as patter makers among others.  From this point of view, Macchion et al. (2015) have asserted that the fashion industry typically consists of four main components. These are the manufacturing system, creative system, managerial system, and communication system.

In relation to the manufacturing system, it normally involves the manufacturers of vertical producers, who are in charge of producing as well as purchases of materials. Additionally, the manufacturers are responsible for the purchase as well as commissions of designs. Manufacturers, as explicated by Bhardwaj and Fairhurst 2010) may range from small enterprises to large-scale factories. When it comes to the creative system, it involves designing the product in line with the tastes as well as preferences of the consumers. As such, the creative system usually encompass designers who come up who various designs of the products, As regards to the managerial system, it organises as well as controls various coordinated stages of sourcing, manufacturing, as well as distributing apparel. In this view, it can be deduced that the managerial system usually encompass general managers, quality control managers, sales managers, and procurement managers among others. Lastly, when it comes to the communication system, it typically deals with production of product information. The communication system also deals with the advertisement of apparel together with fashion shows for the purpose of attracting customers.  Taking this into consideration, through the communication system, the consumers are usually aware of existence of various apparels in the market.

Economy of fashion

According to Macchion et al. (2015), economy of fashion typically takes into account the financial aspects involved in the fashion industry. Such aspects may entail the financial capital involved in production of apparel, who makes money, as well as where the money go.  On one of the most considerations in the economy of fashion is the cost of garment. In light of this, during garment costing, Craik (2003) has asserted that market forces that influence the costing for the garment industry are identified.  Additionally, other variables are identified including hidden costs in sample production, labour costs, different methods of utilising labour, as well as components of industry costing sheets.  Additionally, the quality standards of work together with received materials are assessed.  From this point of view, it becomes easier to estimate the cost of apparel production. Consequently, the costs of the apparel are determined.

According to Joy et al. (2012), fashion has been considered a multitrillion dollar industry in the global arena in relation to all components ranging from apparel brands to importers and retailers. In this consideration, more than one trillion dollars is spent annually on apparel as well as footwear around the world, with close to 370 million dollars spent in the United States alone. Notwithstanding that there are various positions in the fashion industry, it is arguable that fashion designers are the most highly paid. Most consumers are familiar with only few designers such as Calvin Klein and Donna Karan. Nonetheless, Macchion et al. (2015) have indicated that there are more than 18000 designers working in the United States alone. This number has been found to have grown b y close to 50 percent in the last one year. With the growth in the industry the number of designers across the world is expected to increase significantly over the next couple of years.

Relevant issues that involve the ethics of fashion

According to Joy et al. (2012), ethics of fashion is an umbrella term that is used in describing ethical fashion design, production, retail, as well as purchasing of fashion products. Taking this into account, it usually cover  wide range of relevant issues including working conditions, fair trade, exploitation, the environment, sustainable production, as well as animal welfare. Ethics of fashion normally aims at addressing various ethical problems surrounding the fashion industry such as exploitative labour, the use of hazardous chemicals, environmental damage, waste, and animal cruelty.

In regards to exploitative labour, Stinson, (2016) has indicated that serious concerns have been raised regarding exploitative working conditions particularly in factories that manufacture cheap clothes for high street. Considering this, child workers together with exploited adults have become subjected to abuse and violence including forced overtime, bad food, and unhygienic conditions. In relation to environmental damage, cotton has been found to provide most of the world’s fabric. Nonetheless, growing cotton usually uses about 23 percent of the world’s insecticides, alongside 10 percent of the worlds’ pesticide. These chemicals are considered dangerous to the environment due to issues of air and water pollution. Additionally, current textile growing practices have been regarded unsustainable owing to devastating impacts they have on the immediate environment. For instance, the Aral Sea Asia has shrunk to about 15 percent of its initial volume, hugely doe to the large quantity of water needed for cotton production.  In terms of waste, Lueg et al. (2015) have asserted that the low costs as well as disposable nature of high street fashion imply that most of it is destined for landfill sites. For instance, the UK alone has been seen to through away one million tonnes of clothing annually.  In relation to animal welfare, many animals are normally farmed for the purpose of supplying fur for the fashion industry. However, this has been regarded as an important part of ethical debate. In view of the above, the increased debate on ethics of fashion has significantly transformed the industry particularly when it comes to production of apparel. For instance the designer Stella McCartney does not use leather of fur in her designs.  Additionally, firms such as H&M have been recycling its waste in an attempt to conserve the environment.

Issues surrounding the politics of fashion

There are various issues that surround politics of fashion. Nonetheless, these issues fall under four main categories of politics of fashion. These are authoritative politics, anti-establishment politics, identity politics, and industry politics (Craik, 2003). As regards to authoritative politics, it involves the political uses of fashion as statements of politics. In this light, garments or clothes acquire pollicised connotations. These politicos are typically imposed by institutions such institutions, regime, or regulatory mechanism.  For instance, immodest dressing has been banned by various religious institutions across the word. In relation to anti-establishment politics, it stems from political movement seeking cultural or political change such as celebration of fascism. When it comes to identity politics, it typically emerges from ethnic and religions subgroups.  For instance, in most cultures across the world, fashion has conventionally been regarded as a symbol of gender. Nonetheless, over the past few years, the use of clothing as for identity has become an issue across many cultures. As such, some clothing that were regarded to be of a specific gender such as trousers are now worn by both genders.  Lastly, in relation to industry politics, it entails issues that are related to production, distribution, as well as consumption of fashion.  For instance, the issue of third-world exploitation for first-world high street markets have raised a lot of debate over the last couple of years.

Impact of fashion law upon the global business of fashion

According to Herzeca and Hogan (2013), fashion law is an area of law that comprises a wide range of issues that impact the fashion industry.  This has been echoed by Shen et al. (2012), who have elucidated that fashion law typically takes into account the body of law as well as legal principles that governs the relationships that exist among different participants in the fashion industry. Taking this into consideration, some of the most fundamental issues in fashion law include manufacturing, intellectual property,  employment and labour law, business and finance, international trade, government regulation, dress codes and religious apparel, safety and sustainability, privacy, as well as civil rights among other issues.  According to Crane (2012), the fashion law has to a considerable extent impacted the global business of fashion. Precisely, the fashion law has shaped the entire industry particularly when it comes to sourcing, manufacturing, distribution, as well as marketing of apparel. In this view, various participants in the industry have considered conducting practices that are within the law for the aim of avoiding various consequences such as fines. For instance, the fashion law usually prohibits counterfeiting of products. In this regards, firms must consider producing apparel that are genuine. According to Herzeca and Hogan (2013), with the fashion law being implemented effectively in various countries across the globe, the fashion industry is expected to take a new shape, which is likely to see the industry rise to higher levels in various aspects including the quality of apparel produced.

Conclusion

Conclusively, it is evident that the fashion industry is the industry that deals with making clothes. As regards to economy of fashion, it typically takes into account the financial aspects involved in the fashion industry such as the cost of fabrics. In relation to ethics of fashion, it has been established it usually cover  wide range of relevant issues including working conditions, fair trade, exploitation, the environment, sustainable production, as well as animal welfare. In relation to politics of fashion, it has been established that there are various political issue surrounding fashion such as dressing codes.  In regards to the impact of fashion law upon the global business of fashion, it has been revealed that the fashion law has shaped the fashion industry as the participants have to abide to the rules and regulations set.

 

 

References

Bhardwaj, V., & Fairhurst, A. (2010) Fast fashion: response to changes in the fashion industry. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research20(1), 165-173.

Craik, J. (2003) The face of fashion: Cultural studies in fashion. Routledge.

Crane, D. (2012) Fashion and its social agendas: Class, gender, and identity in clothing. University of Chicago Press.

Joy, A., Sherry Jr, J. F., Venkatesh, A., Wang, J., & Chan, R. (2012) Fast fashion, sustainability, and the ethical appeal of luxury brands. Fashion Theory16(3), 273-295.

Lueg, R., Pedersen, M. M., & Clemmensen, S. N. (2015) The role of corporate sustainability in a low‐cost business model–A case study in the Scandinavian fashion industry. Business Strategy and the Environment24(5), 344-359.

Macchion, L., Moretto, A., Caniato, F., Caridi, M., Danese, P., & Vinelli, A. (2015) Production and supply network strategies within the fashion industry. International Journal of Production Economics163, 173-188.

Stinson, R. (2016) Ethical Fashion 101: The Top 5 Ethical Issues in the Fashion Industry. Eco Warriors Princess. Retrieved from: http://ecowarriorprincess.net/2016/09/ethical-fashion-101-the-top-5-ethical-issues-in-the-fashion-industry/

Herzeca, L .,&  Hogan, H. (2013) Fashion Law and Business: Brands & Retailers. IPWatchdog. Retrieved from: http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2013/09/27/fashion-law-and-business-brands-retailers/id=45373/

Shen, B., Wang, Y., Lo, C. K., & Shum, M. (2012) The impact of ethical fashion on consumer purchase behavior. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal16(2), 234-245.

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Utopia in the Film Zootopia

Utopia in the Film Zootopia

According to Wright (2010), Utopias typically respond to imagined places with no problems.  It is regarded as a perfect place, where everyone would desire to be.  Taking this into account, utopia has been presented in films, television, literature, video games, and music among others Godin (2012). This paper explores how utopia has been presented in the animation film, Zootopia.

In the animation movie, Zootopia, Judy, a bunny dreams of becoming a police officer, in Zootopia, the capital city.  Notwithstanding the fact that Zootopia is a city that is regarded as a place where any bunny can be anyone, there is a stereotype that police officers should be big and strong animals.  Nonetheless, Judy has a strong mind, and she is able to challenge the stereotype, and eventually becomes a police officer. Being the first bunny to enter into the police force, Judy faces a lot of fights as well as scepticism in attempt to be recognised among the other officers.  As a police officer, Judy is dedicated to fulfil her role, and she becomes committed to help everyone in the society.  Additionally, she advocates for justice, equality as well as rights in Zootopia. From this perspective, the world of Utopia becomes a place where people care and help each other regardless of their position in the society. In this right, the world becomes full of justice, rights, as well as equality.

The animation Zootopia is set in the current world where there are various vices in the political as well as societal arenas. Precisely, the film has depicted the current political systems which have been marred by corruption and injustice by the authorities. However, the firm have presented a premonition that in the future, the political system will be rational, and free from such vices.  From the societal perspective, Zootopia has illustrated the current world, where the weak people in the society are looked down upon. Besides, it is the world where there is no justice and equality, and the rights of people are violated in the society. However, the film foresees the future, in the world where all people will be treated equally irrespective of their role in the society. In this world, all people will treat each other with care, and violation of rights within the society will be a theme of the past.  This film has been in line with the assertion of Cooper (2013), who articulates that in the near future, the world will be a better place, where the voice of the weak members of the society will be heard. In this regard, people will be able to live in peace and harmony with one another.

Conclusively, it is deducible that Zootopia is one of the examples of utopia film. As such, while the movie has depicted the current undesirable society full of inequality, injustice, and violation of human rights, it has presented a premonition of what is likely to happen in the foreseeable future. This is where these vices will not be present in the society.

 

References

Cooper, D. (2013). Everyday utopias: The conceptual life of promising spaces. Duke University Press.

Godin, B. (2012). Social Innovation: Utopias of Innovation from c. 1830 to the Present. Project on the Intellectual History of Innovation Working Paper, (11).

Wright, E. O. (2010). Envisioning real utopias (Vol. 98). London: Verso.

Young, M. (2016). Zootopia: Utopia of Dystopia? Retreived from: https://bulldogtimes.org/1212/a-e/zootopia-utopia-or-dystopia/

Zhao, J. (2017).Zootopia: Is it an Utopia?. Retrieved from: https://thecadreupei.com/2016/03/18/zootopia-is-it-an-utopia/

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Business Law and Ethics

Business Law and Ethics

Question 1:  Was it a term of the contract between Mikaela and Tower Flours that the almond flour would be gluten free?

From the scenario, it can be deduced that a term of contract existed between Mikaela and Towers Flours that the almond flour would be free from gluten. Taking this into account, term of contract usually takes into consideration what has been agreed between one or two parties either orally of through writing.  A term of contract is typically characterised by offer and acceptance[1]. In this light, offer is made through oral as well as conduct. Besides, the offer should be distinguished from a treat invitation.  After making an offer, there is need to be acceptance, which normally acts as the final expression of acknowledgement of the various conditions of the particular offer. In this view, there is need to accept the offer in line with its conditions particularly when it comes to forming an agreement. In the case of Harvey Norman Franchisee over Consumer Rights Breach, the Federal court ordered one of Harvey Normal franchisee to pay 52000 US dollars for making false representation regarding guarantee rights of consumers.  The petition was brought by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission[2].  In this case, the franchisee was not giving customers refund, replacement or repair of products that were deemed to be of unacceptable quality.  Going with the Australian Consumer Law, when consumer purchase products, they should be acceptable quality.  Therefore, the franchisee had breached the consumer law, and thus had to be fined.   Taking the case of Mikaela into consideration, it can be deduced that it was a term of contact given that Mikaela had emailed Tower Flours asking them to supply almond flour that was gluten free.  It then became a term of agreement the moment Ricky accepted that they would supply flour that is gluten free. However, given that Tower Fours supplied flour that is not gluten-free, it can be noted that it was a breach of the agreement. In this situation, Mikaela should consider filing a suit against Tower Flours for compensation due to the losses incurred.

 

Question 2: Was there are implied term in Dan and Jacob’s contract with Mikaela, that their wedding cake would be gluten-free?

There was no implied term contract in Jacob and Dan’s contract with Mikaela when it comes the wedding cake being gluten free. As regards to implied contracts, parties are typically regarded to have an agreement to a term even when the terms have not been written or discussed. Therefore, when it comes to the case of Jacon and Dan’s contract with Mikaela, it can be deduced that there is no implied contract owing to the fact that they did not specify their requests regarding the type of flour that was to be used in baking the cake. This is in terms of whether the flour would be free from gluten or not.  If they had specified the type of flour that should have been used in the preparation of the cake, then it goes without saying that Mikaela should have been bound to this specification.  Considering this, it is worth noting that implied terms only exist in situations where the buyer expressively makes the seller aware of the reasonable expectations of the product when ordering or purchasing[3].  Nonetheless, when it comes to this case, Dan and Jacob did not expressively make Mikaela aware of the condition in which Dan was suffering from. As a result, there was reaction to Mikaela’s cake, which to a considerable extent affected the health outcome of Dan. Taking this into consideration, it is clear that the two parties are not bound to implied term of their contract.

Question 3: Was icing a condition or a warranty of the contract?

The icing of the cake can be considered a warranty of contract.  Taking this into account, a condition of a contract usually takes into account the act which impacts a contractual responsibly of a party involved in a contract directly. In the other hand, when it comes to the warranty of contract, it refers to a guarantee which acts as a provision of assurance between involved parties that particular conditions will be met[4]. Taking this into consideration, a breach of an implied guarantee must be treated as a breach of a warranty if the buyer in the subject has already accepted the goods, having a reasonable opportunity of inspecting them. In this light, it is with no doubt that Kimiko discovered that the cake had blue and green icing after he had already left. Therefore, it means that he had enough time of inspecting the cake before leaving. Taking this into account, owing to the fact that there is breach of warranty, the common low stipulates that the buyer cannot reject goods, nor terminate the contract.  However, the buyer can claim for damages for any loss incurred.

Question 4: Is Mikaela still responsible for icing being the wrong colour on Kimiko’s cake?

Mikaela cannot be regarded responsible for the wrong icing of the Kimiko’s case. On this, Kimiko had already read the sign that Mikaela is not responsible for any breach of warranty. Therefore, given that there was already a breach of warranty, it implies that Mikaela cannot be hold responsible.  As regards to common law, when it comes to the breach of warranty, the buyer cannot rejects goods neither terminate the contract. Nonetheless, the buyer can claim dames for any loss that is made.  If Mikaela had not put a sign a board for customers to see, then it means that Kimiko should have been compensated for the loss incurred. This means that given the fact that the cake was no longer useful, Kimiko should have been refunded the amount that was paid for the cake. However, for this situation, Kimiko cannot be compensated due to the breach of warranty presented in this situation.

 

 

References

Corones S The Australian Consumer Law. Thomson Reuters Lawbook Co 2011.

Fried C Contract as promise: A theory of contractual obligation. OUP Us, 2015.

Griggs L ‘Australian Consumer Law-An overview, unfair contracts, consumer guarantees and remedies’, In Australian Consumer Law 2011 (pp. 1-9).

Johnston R  ACCC Fines Harvey Norman Franchisee Over Consumer Rights Breach 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2016/01/accc-fines-harvey-norman-franchisee-over-consumer-rights-breach/

McKendrick E Contract law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford University Press (UK), 2014.

 

 

 

[1] Corones S The Australian Consumer Law. Thomson Reuters Lawbook Co 2011.

 

[2] Johnston R  ACCC Fines Harvey Norman Franchisee Over Consumer Rights Breach 2016

[3] Fried C Contract as promise: A theory of contractual obligation. OUP Us, 2015.

 

[4] McKendrick E Contract law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford University Press (UK), 2014.

 

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Social Media use of Telstra and Vodafone

Social Media use of Telstra and Vodafone

 

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction. 1

2.0 Social media use in Telstra. 2

3.0 Social media use in Vodafone. 3

4.0 Conclusion. 4

References. 6

 

 

 

 

 

1.0 Introduction

With advancement of internet and technology in general over the last couple of years, the use of social media has gained a lot of popularity among most organisations across the world. In this view, Kaur (2016) has explained that social media typically takes into account computer generated technology that facilities the creation as well as sharing of information, ideas, career interests, and other expressions through virtual networks and communities.  In attempt to improve customer service while enhancing brand, most companies have considered leveraging on the use of various social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Google+ (Armstrong 2015). These have been depicted in the figure 1 below.  However, Facebook and Twitter has been the most used in most companies across the globe. Taking this into account, this report seeks to explore the use of social media by two telecommunication companies in Australia; Telstra and Vodafone.

Figure 1: Common social media platforms and their monthly users

Source: techcrunch.com (2017)

2.0 Social media use in Telstra

The use of social media by Telstra over the last couple of years has to a considerable level shaped the manner in which the company conducts its communication. In this view, as explained by Lee (2011), Telstra has showed an intense presence in various social media platforms including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Linkedln, Google+, and Tumblr.  As noted by Lee (2011), the main vision when it comes to the social media use in Telstra has been to provide news, insights, as well as opinions from all areas of the business.  Owing to the fact that mist customers typically expect transparency, the use if social media by Telstra has to a large extent provided this platform. The figure 2 below shows the Facebook page of Telstra.

Figure 2: Telstra Facebook page

Source: Facebook.com. (2017)

With the use of various social media platforms, Telstra has been in a position of communicating various issues to the customers. This has included issues related to service delivery as well as general information related to the company and the customers.  According to Fitzsimmons and Smith (2013), Telstra has taken the advantage of social media platforms in advertising its products to the customers. This has mostly through Facebook as well as Twitter. The figure 3 below shows the twitter handle of Telstra News.

Figure 3: Telstra News Twitter handle

Source: Twitter.com (2017)

Apart from advertising and providing a wide range of information to the customers, the use of social media by Telstra has also been inclined towards enhancing transparent dialogue with the customers.  Taking this into consideration, with 24 hours support on Facebook and Twitter, Telstra has been in a position of ensuring constant communication with the customers.  According to Kaur, G. (2016), Telstra has been named as one of the leaders when it comes to responding to customer queries through social media platforms.  A study conducted by Fitzsimmons and Smith (2013) revealed that social media customer service has been driven largely by consumer demand, with most of the consumers in Australia likely to use social media platform on contacting companies. In this view, for the purpose of ensuring that the needs of the customers are taken into consideration, Telstra has joined forces with Facebook in an attempt to provide a new online live chat service for customers. With close to 10 million regular users, Armstrong (2015) has explained that it make sense for the company to deliver its service there. The live-chat has been available 24 hours a day in recognition that most customers usually need questions answered in outside business hours. Additionally, Telstra has also reached out considerably on twitter, where the team has been set up to monitor comments as well as post replies. With such efforts, the company has been in a position of attending the needs of the customers, which has given the company a competitive edge in the in telecommunication industry in Australia.

3.0 Social media use in Vodafone

Just like Telstra, Vodafone has realised the power of social media in the success of the organisation. Taking this into consideration, the company has over the last couple of years made use of various social media platforms for the purpose of enhancing its brands while interacting with the customers. Vodafone, just like Telstra has leveraged on the use of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, and Tumblr.  However, unlike Telstra which makes almost equal use of both Facebook and Twitter, Vodafone has been found to use Twitter more as compare to Facebook. The figure 4 below shows the Facebook page of Vodafone Australia.

Figure 4: Vodafone Australia Facebook page

Source: Facebook.com (2017)

According to Tripathi and Bhattacharjee (2016), Vodafone has expanded and extended its social media networks for the purpose of enhancing its customer service as well as brand marketing.  As regards to customer service, Vodafone has been committed to listening to the voice of every customer through social media platforms.  As such, through connecting with the customers through social media platforms, Vodafone has been in a position of understanding specific needs of the customers (Salesforce.com 2017).   This has made it possible for the company to reach many customers easily, while addressing their individual needs. Nonetheless, unlike the case of Telstra, where most social media platforms including Facebook and Twitter are active 24 hours, it has been noted that in Vodafone, these platforms opens form 6am to midnight daily. This can be seen from the Twitter page of the company in the figure below. This perhaps explains why Telstra has been in a position of providing more excellent services as compared to Vodafone.

Figure 5: Vodafone Australian Twitter handle

Source: Twitter.com (2017)

In regards to brand marketing, Salesforce. com. (2017) has explained that Vodafone has enhanced its communications for the brand across a wide range of social platforms.  In this regards, Vodafone has sought to establish the brand through the use of a wide range of strategies including advocacy as well as identifying influencers.  According to Chaffey (2016), the use of social media in brand marketing by Vodafone is substantial revolutionary move by the company when it comes to social media marketing. This has mainly been through the use of Facebook.  Besides, as Chaffey (2016) explicates, Twitter presence of Vodafone has also garnered much praise owing to its role in customer service within the social media channel. In fact, Vodafone has been highly credited as one of the most successful Twitter-based company in relation to the response rate to the customers.  Considering this, the company has regarded its success as one of the direct results of the decision to use Twitter as a customer service channel, and not just a specific marketing tool (Salesforce. com 2017).

4.0 Conclusion

Conclusively, this report has established that the use of social media by many companies across the world has witnessed a substantial growth over the past few years.  It has been established from this report that for the purpose of improving customer service while enhancing brand, most companies have leveraged on the use of various social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Google+. When it comes to Telstra and Vodafone, both of the companies have used social media platforms, particularly Facebook and Twitter. However, while Telstra has been seen to use Facebook and Twitter equally, Vodafone has been seen to rely hugely on twitter. Additionally, while Telstra’s Facebook and Twitter are active 24 hours a day, Vodafone is active from 6am to midnight daily.

 

 

References

Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M., & Brennan, R 2015, Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Education.

Cader, Y., & Al Tenaiji, A. A 2013, Social media marketing. International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation2(6), 546-560.

Chaffey, D 2016, Global social media research summary 2016. Smart Insights8.

Constine, . J 2017, Facebook now has 2 billion monthly users… and responsibility. Retrieved from: https://techcrunch.com/2017/06/27/facebook-2-billion-users/

Facebook.com 2017, Vodafone Australia. Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/vodafoneau/

Facebook.com 2017, Telstra. Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/Telstra/

Tripathi, V., & Bhattacharjee, D 2016, The Green Revolution: Social Change through Social Media. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management3(3), 146-152.

Twitter.com 2017, Telstra News. Retreived from: https://twitter.com/Telstra_news

Twitter.com 2017, Vodafone Australia. Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/VodafoneAU

Fitzsimmons, C and Smith,P 2013, Telstra, Target leading on social media customer service. Financial Review. Retrieved from http: ://www.afr.com/technology/telstra-target-leading-on-social-media-customer-service-20131021-jyjhp#ixzz4pM0kcvkx

Kaur, G 2016, Social Media Marketing. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies4(7).

Lee, T 2011, Telstra reveals social networking strategy. The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/telstra-reveals-social-networking-strategy/news-story/51afa740518c0020465483b76e3ef537

Salesforce.com 2017, Vodafone rebuilds Australian brand placing customer at the centre. Retrieved from: https://www.salesforce.com/au/customers/stories/vodafone.jsp

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Analysis and Interpretation of Egyptian Pyramids and the Shakespeare’s Sonnet 123

Analysis and Interpretation of Egyptian Pyramids and the Shakespeare’s Sonnet 123

Introduction

The interpretation as well as analysis of the Egyptian pyramids and the Shakespeare’s sonnet 123 brings a lot of insights in relation to the way of life of people. The Egyptian pyramid brings a feeling of creativity and hard work portrayed by the ancient Egyptians. On the other hand, the Shakespeare’s sonnet 123   brings insight regarding the need to maintain character over time.

The Egyptian Pyramids

Figure 1: The Egyptian pyramids

Source: Bard (2015

The Egyptian pyramids have for over the last many years become the centre of attraction to many people across the world. The Egyptian Pyramids as explained by Bard (2015, p.23) are pyramid-shaped masonry structures that are located in Egypt.  Built during the period that Egypt was considered as one of the most powerful civilization, the Egyptian pyramids have been regarded as the some of the most unique and magnificent man-made structures in the history of human kind.  According to Lucas and Harris (2012, p.34), the pyramids were primarily built for burial monuments, where the Egyptian Kings used to be buried.  Taking this into account, the massive scale of the Egyptian Pyramids as described by O’Connor (2011, p.12) typically reflects the unique role that the king or Pharouh had in the Ancient Egyptian. Notwithstanding the fact that start of the building of the pyramids started during the time of the Old Kingdom, Lucas and Harris (2012, p.34) have emphasised that the peak of the pyramids building started during the third dynasty.

As found out by Lucas and Harris (2012, p.34), the Egyptian pyramids continued to be built throughout the fifth as well as sixth dynasty. Nonetheless, the quality together with the scale of construction declined continuously over this period. This was proportional to the decline in the wealth and power of the Kings. According to Bard (2015, p.23), tomb robbers in both ancient as well as modern times have removed most of the funeral goods and bodies from the pyramids. Besides, their exteriors have been plundered to a considerable extent.  Given that the pyramids have been stripped most of the limestone coverings, they no longer have their original heights. However, the Egyptian pyramids have still remained much of majesty, providing a significant glimpse when it comes to the rich and glorious past of the country. In this view, millions of people across the world continue to visit the Egyptian pyramids every year.

The Shakespeare’s sonnet123

Figure 2: The Shakespeare’s sonnet 123

Source:  Bate (2016)

Written by English poet and playwright William Shakespeare, sonnet 123 is one of the most popular sonnets.  According to Bate (2016, p.123), sonnet 123 is part of the Fair Youth sequence, where the poet expresses his affection towards a young man.  Through the sonnet, Shakespeare has addressed the ideas of change as well as growth in the life time of the human being.  Taking this into account, as Crystal (2011, p.300) argues, the primary theme of the sonnet is that years usually continue to pass, and the narrator is getting older with time.  However, the poet feels that it is unnecessary to change character accordingly. From the sonnet, the narrator emphasises that there are various changes in the physical world, which may happen through within the life time of an individual. This is what that has been referred by the narrator as the pyramids.  Additionally, the narrator emphasises that there is a substantial need o respect what has been done before.  However, from the sonnet, it can be deduced that the narrator is for the idea that there is no need of worrying about what has already happened (Bate 2016, p.123). There is also no point of worrying about what is happening now because it is merely a waste of time. As such, one should live his or her own life in line with own constitution. Therefore, one should be true to himself or herself irrespective of the consequences that may occur.  Shakespeare also emphasise that there is no point of dressing up something tired and old and presenting it as new (Landkildehus & Shakespeare, 2011, p.67). From this sonnet, it is obvious that Shakespeare is concerned about how people live, and how the interact with each other.  In this view, reading over the sonnet brings the reader with a feeling that there is need to change character with time irrespective of what comes on the way.

Comparison of the Egyptian pyramids and sonnet 123

In regards to the comparison between the Egyptian Pyramids and the sonnet 123, it is a fact that there are some similarities as well as differences. When it comes to the similarities, it is deducible that the aspect of time is portrayed in both the Egyptian pyramids and the sonnet 123. Precisely, in regards to the Egyptian, it is notable that that pyramids have emphasised on the period where the pyramids were built, and the transformation that has happened on the pyramids over the years. Similarly, in relation to the sonnet 123, the narrator indicates that as year passes, one has to grow old. Taking the aspect of time into account, it can be noted that that both the Egyptian pyramids and the sonnet 123 indicates that time is pertinent for transformation. Another key similarity that can be deduced from both Egyptian pyramids and the sonnet 123 is that there is need to acknowledge what has been built in the past, and it should not presented as new. As such, the builders of the pyramids have been acknowledged and appreciated. Similarity, the author in the sonnet 123 indicates that one should bring something old and present it as his or her own.

Despite the above similarities, it can be noted that the main difference between the Egyptian pyramids and the sonnet 123 is the aspect of change. Precisely, the Egyptian pyramids insinuate that there is change over time, where the pyramids no longer have their original heights. This implies that the originality of the pyramids is no longer visible. However, when it comes to the sonnet 123, the author has indicated that irrespective of time, one should change his character or originality. As such, the Egyptian pyramids and the sonnet 123 tend to have different insinuate different ideologies.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is with no doubt that the Egyptian pyramids and the Shakespeare’s sonnet 123   have been considered pertinent by many people. From the above, it has been note that both of the addresses the aspect of time and transformation. Besides, both of them have emphasised that one should not bring something old and present it as his own. Nonetheless, while the Egyptian pyramids emphasises that on change of originality, the sonnet 123 has indicated that no need to change character of time.

 

 

References

Bard, K. A 2015 An introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt. John Wiley & Sons.

Bate, J 2016 The Genius of Shakespeare: Picador Classic (Vol. 43). Pan Macmillan.

Crystal, D 2011 Sounding out Shakespeare: Sonnet Rhymes in Original Pronunciation. Jezik u Upotrebi: primenjena lingvsitikja u cast Ranku Bugarskom. Novi Sad and Belgrade: Philosophy faculties, 295-306.

Landkildehus, S., & Shakespeare, S 2011 Anthony Giddens: Kierkegaard and the risk of existence. Kierkegaard’s Influence on the Social Sciences, 121-36.

Lucas, A., & Harris, J 2012 Ancient Egyptian materials and industries. Courier Corporation.

O’Connor, D. B 2011 Abydos: Egypt’s first pharaohs and the cult of Osiris. Thames & Hudson.

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Security Issues in the Internet of Things

Security Issues in the Internet of Things

Introduction

The growth of Internet of Things (IoT) over the past couple of years has considerably transformed how people conduct their everyday tasks. According to Bonomi et al. (2010), Internet of Things (IoT) has been described as the network of physical objects such as devices, buildings, vehicles, as well as other items that are embedded with electronics, sensors, software and network connectivity, enabling them to collect as well as exchange data.  This description has been echoed by Atzori, et al. (2010), who have elucidate that that IoT takes into account devices connected to the internet regardless of the computation power, size, and price of the device among other metrics.  The IoT has been found to extend intend internet connectivity to a wide range of real world devices including cars, washing machines, door locks, air conditioners, and refrigerators among others.  In regard to this, it is deducible that IoT has become has essential in the daily lives of people. Nonetheless, even as the number of devices connected to the internet expected to hit 50 billion by 2020, one of the major concerns has been security issues posed. Taking this into account, this paper seeks to explore the security issues that come with the IoT. The paper then explores hacking as one of the major security issues, providing various methods on how it can be defended against.

Security issues in Internet of Things

Notwithstanding the significance of IoT when it comes to creating extremely useful insights, Suo et al. (2012) have explained that the security concerns surrounding it are substantial to a considerable extent.  While there is a wide range of security issues surrounding IoT, Atzori, et al. (2010) have explained that the main ones include vulnerability to hacking, lack of standards in regards to sharing and protecting data, more connected devices, implying more problems. As regards to hacking, Chahid et al. (2017) have explained that many researchers have been able to hack into real devices with enough time as well as energy.  This sentiment has been backed up by Kopetz (2011), who has found out that there is typically a plethora of loopholes in the security of most devices, which make them vulnerable to hacking. As regards to the issue of lack of standards in sharing and protecting data, Xia et al. (2012) have explained that despite the fact that there have been standardisation efforts taking place , overall, there have been no a standard body of IoT security. As such, every business typically decides independently on the security controls to employ, leaving the overall security of various devices at stake. Lastly, as regards to the connection of more devices, Suo et al. (2012) have argued that increase in the number of devices connected to the internet has implies that hackers can accomplish more. Additionally, hackers can use some of devices to get access to other devices, thus compromising security to a considerable extent.  In light of these, the below section explores hacking, as one of the main security concern of IoT.

Hacking as IoT security issue

According to Kopetz (2011), hacking of Internet of Things (IoT) has increased rapidly over the last couple of years. Taking this into account, Xia et al. (2012) explain that hacking entails exploiting the weaknesses of IoT for the purpose of gaining access.  With the substantial growth in the IoT, Suo et al. (2012) have explained that the attack surfaces have also grown proportionally. This has implies that all the loopholes as well as vulnerabilities that are present in the digital world are likely to flow in the real world. Before IoT, Chahid et al. (2017) have argued that attackers were using vulnerabilities for data theft as well as making money. Nonetheless, with IoT, the attack surface has to huge extent grown, where the attackers can use loopholes and vulnerabilities in cars and rifles among others.  As such, hacking of IoT has become common particularly owing the increasing number of insecure devices that are connected to the internet.  With insecure systems present in IoT, hackers have been in a position of producing DDoS attacks that are capable of crippling infrastructure as well as systems. Besides, as found out by Xia et al. (2012), hackers also exploit a device directly for the aim of using it as a gateway of getting to deeper levels of a specific network, where they gather sensitive as well as valuable data for self gains.

According to Bonomi et al. (2010), attackers are constantly finding the loopholes of breaking into IoT for the purpose of conducting a wide range of illegal activities. For instance, cars, which have become one of the most important parts of IoT have become a common target for many hackers. Taking this into account, once the attackers hack into a car, they can control it remotely, and conduct a wide range of things remotely such as applying brakes, steering, acceleration, and opening the doors among other things that are performed by the driver. The vulnerabilities of cars was demonstrated by two researchers, Charlie and Chris, who killed a jeep on a highway remotely, resulting to the recall of over 1.4 vehicles (Chahid et al., 2017).  From this point of view, it can be deduced that the attackers can use such loopholes in hijacking people for malicious purposes such as killing them or crashing their cars.  Such forms of vulnerabilities, as noted by Weber (2010) are also present in other IoT, and may have severe consequences.

Kopetz (2011) has indicated that the there are various reasons that make IoT vulnerable to hacking. In light of this, one of the reasons is that IoT devices typically have fewer resources such as storage space, processing power, and memory.  Additionally, it is not easy to apply security patches on most of the IoT devices. In this perspective, it becomes easier for the attackers to penetrate their systems.  Besides, as noted by Chahid et al. (2017), most of the anti-malware as well as other endpoint security software cannot be installed in most of the IoT devices. Therefore, it implies that most of these devices are usually left vulnerable, making it easy for the attackers to hack them. Nonetheless, with increase in the number hacking cases, Suo et al. (2012) have argued that many software are now being developed for the purpose of enhancing the security of these devices.

Recommendations

As noted by Weber (2010), both vendors as well as the customers are usually responsible for minimising the cases of hacking in IoT devices. Taking this into account, when it comes to the vendors, they should consider enforcing an effective authentication policy. For instance, they should consider effective password policy of at least 8 to character with mixture of numbers, letters, as well as special characters.  Through such, it will make the devices less vulnerable to hackers, thus improving the overall security. The vendors should also consider using captcha, as well as other forms of account lockout policy methods. This is for the purpose of avoiding possible hacking of the devices. According to Suo et al. (2012), vendors should also consider providing security updates such as details of security fixes, the effect of the device vulnerability. Subsequently, they should consider providing the steps of deploying various security updates. Kopetz (2011) has explained that in attempt to reduce the cases of hacking, vendors of IoT devices should always avoid information disclosure such as publishing customer’s data including phone number and name. Lastly, while adding new features to the product, Chahid et al. (2017) have explained that vendors should always make sure it will not create a security loophole. Through employing these methods, vendors can be a position of minimising the rates of hacking of the IoT devices.

When it comes to the side of the customers, Weber (2010) has explained that one of the most important ways that customers can minimise rate of hacking of IoT devices is through downloading software as well as updates from vendors and sources that are known to be trusted. Still on this, the consumers should always verify the integrity as well as credulity of the downloaded updates through various methods such as md5. As Bonomi et al. (2010) indicates, it is also the responsibility of the user to enable 2-factor authentications if available for a given product. Through such, it will become difficult for the hacker to penetrate through the device system easily.  The users also need to use strong as well as unique passwords, which can make it hard for the hackers to penetrate through the devices. Lastly, Kopetz (2011) has elucidated that users should ensure regular data back-up in a place that is secure. While this does not necessarily prevent hacking, it ensures that even in case of hacking, the data is still secure. Through applying these methods, the users can play a pertinent role in enhancing security of the IoT devices particularly when it comes to the issue of hacking.

Conclusion

Conclusively, it is deducible that Internet of Things has been described as the network of physical objects such as devices, buildings, vehicles, and items connected to the internet. Although the significance of IoT in creating useful insights, the security concerns surrounding it are significant. The main security issues surrounding IoT include vulnerability to hacking, lack of standards in regards to sharing and protecting data, more connected devices.  In relation to hacking, it has become common due the increasing number of insecure devices that are connected to the internet.  With insecure systems present in IoT, hackers have been in a position of producing DDoS attacks that capable of crippling infrastructure and systems. However, it has been established that both vendors and users can help in minimising the rate of hacking of IoT. Precisely, vendors need to enforce an effective authentication policy, using captcha, providing security details, and not disclosing personal information of the users. On the other hand, users need to use strong and unique passwords, use software from trusted sources, and backing up data in a secure place.

 

 

References

Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: A survey. Computer networks54(15), 2787-2805.

Bonomi, F., Milito, R., Zhu, J., & Addepalli, S. (2012, August). Fog computing and its role in the internet of things. In Proceedings of the first edition of the MCC workshop on Mobile cloud computing (pp. 13-16). ACM.

Chahid, Y., Benabdellah, M., & Azizi, A. (2017, April). Internet of things security. In Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Kopetz, H. (2011). Internet of things. In Real-time systems (pp. 307-323). Springer US.

Suo, H., Wan, J., Zou, C., & Liu, J. (2012, March). Security in the internet of things: a review. In Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 international conference on (Vol. 3, pp. 648-651). IEEE.

Weber, R. H. (2010). Internet of Things–New security and privacy challenges. Computer law & security review26(1), 23-30.

Xia, F., Yang, L. T., Wang, L., & Vinel, A. (2012). Internet of things. International Journal of Communication Systems25(9), 1101.

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The Influence of Technology on Telstra

The Influence of Technology on Telstra

As noted by Robbins et al. (2012,p.34), the general organisation environment typically consists of a wide range of technological, sociocultural, economic, political, legal, as well as global conditions within the boundaries under which the business operates.  Taking this into account, it is deducible that changes in these conditions usually influence an organisation to a considerable extent.  Telstra, being one of the organisations in Australia has over the years been affected hugely by these conditions. Telstra is one of the leading telecommunications companies in Australia, offering a plethora of connectivity, media, as well as content to consumers in Australia.  Over the last few years, the company has witnessed a tremendous growth, which has made it to expand to operations to other countries across the world.   While the company has largely been influenced by various external factors, Robbins et al. (2012, p.34) have asserted that technological factors have been seen to impact the company the most.

As elucidated by p.35, the technological dimensions of the general environment typically consist of knowledge, tools, as well as methods that used in the conversion of resources into products. This sentiment has been backed up by Auzair (2011, p.13), who assert that “In line with the PESTEL framework, technological aspect usually includes technological as well as scientific advancements that are related to process or product technologies”. As noted by Auzair (2011, p.13), changes in technology aspects normally results to proportional changes in firms in a particular industry. Taking this into account, changes in technology over the last one year have to a considerable extent affect the mobile telecommunication industry in Australia. Precisely, as explained by Ding et al. (2017,p.188), over the last one year, despite the fact that the telecommunication industry has witnessed various technological advancements, one of the most significant one is the development of 5G networks, which are now expected to replace the current 4G networks. According to Ding et al. (2017,p.188), most firms in the mobile telecommunication industry in Australia including Telstra, OPTUS and Spark, and in there are now ready to launch their 5G networks after numerous tests that have been seen to be successful.  With 5G network, Telstra, like other firms in the industry will leverage in the its ability to underpin the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT), thus providing the latency level required for various applications such as autonomous driving. Besides, owing to the fact that internet traffic is expected to grow to over 75 percent in the next three years, 5G will be able to satisfy this demand in a manner that is efficient and cost effective (Ding et al. 2017,p.188). As such, the operations costs of Telstra will be reduced to a considerable extent, which will translate to a huge profit margin.

Conclusively, it can be deduced that external environment usually affect an organisation considerably. Taking this into account, it has been established that the technological aspects in the mobile telecommunication industry has impacted Telstra hugely. Precisely, the development of 5G networks is expected to increase efficiency while reducing costs. This will make the company make huge profits.

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