Why Foreign Aid is bad for Sub-Saharan Africa

Why Foreign Aid is bad for Sub-Saharan Africa

Introduction

For the last five decades, giving foreign aid to developing countries, specifically to countries in sub-Saharan Africa has become a priority for many developed nations. The foreign aid in terms of economic, humanitarian, social and other forms have escalated since post-independence period in the 1960s, whereby it is estimated that over one trillion US dollars have trickled to Africa in form of aids (Alemu & Lee, 2015).  While it is significantly morally imperative for humanitarian organizations to step in during crisis situations such as Ebola outbreak in West African countries, the sustainability of aid in long-term development have been questioned. The fact many sub-Saharan countries remain underdeveloped despite that trillion of US dollars in foreign aid have been directed to the region raises the question whether foreign aid is actually effective or whether it hinders development (Alemu & Lee, 2015). Omotola and Saliu (2009) posit that although there has been slight reduction in poverty levels in some sub-Saharan countries, the region has failed to show significant improvements despite the escalation of aid from NGOs and developing countries.

According to Calderisi (2006) the ever-increasing aid to sub-Saharan Africa was founded on the premise that it could bring positive outcomes in poverty reduction. However, the positive relationship between foreign aid and economic development is questionable especially with emerging evidence that poverty levels have deteriorated in some sub-Saharan countries. Therefore, as richer governments and NGOs continue to seek recognition by giving huge donations to sub-Saharan Africa, the question still remains whether foreign aid is actually effective in alleviating poverty.  This essay will explore  how foreign aid continue to harm sub-Saharan Africa by exposing how foreign aid increases debt burden and leads to overdependence, hence making foreign aid to be been ineffective poverty alleviation.

Overview of foreign aid

Before delving into the discussion why foreign aid might be bad for Africa, it is important to provide a brief overview of the concept and its history. Basically, foreign aid refers to all forms of assistance that one country receives from external governments, financial institutions or non-governmental organisations, intended to fill noticeable gaps in the country mostly in production and investments (Ogundipe et al. 2014).  The types of foreign aids are diversified and they include loans, grants, foreign direct investment (FDI) and technical assistance (Ogundipe et al. 2014). Basically, the concept of foreign aid which as designed after World War II was intended to help stimulate economic growth in poor countries through supplementing their budgets and investments projects (Bräutigam & Knack, 2004).Literature on impact of foreign aid and economic growth posit that foreign capital inflow could stimulate economic growth in poor countries. The reasons for this assertion is that foreign aid not only supplements domestic resources/savings, but it also assists in minimising foreign exchange gap and allows easier access to foreign markets, which will subsequently lead to economic growth (Djankov et al. 2008). Besides, foreign aid was also intended to support reforms and policy formulation in Africa which would make government agencies and public institutions to be more accountable, transparent, and efficient (Djankov et al. 2008). However, while providing foreign aid to poor countries in sub-Saharan Africa might appear like a noble cause, Djankov et al. (2008) and Gillanders (2016) criticise that five decades for foreign aid have brought more harm to the region than the intended benefits.As shown in Figure below, while foreign aid to sub-Saharan African continue to increase economic growth slowed and/or decline in some countries (Gillanders, 2016).

Figure 1:  Relationship between aid and GDP growth

Source: Gillanders(2016)

Why foreign aid is harmful to sub-Saharan Africa

Considering that countries in Asia such as China have recorded tremendous economic growth and have been able to pull majority of its population from poverty without foreign aid,  it is arguable that foreign aid is not the answer to alleviation of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.  As argued by Gillanders (2016), foreign aid has brought more negative consequences to sub-Saharan Africa leaving the recipientcountries in worse situation than before. This essay will discuss two key negative outcomes of foreign aid to sub-Saharan Africa including debt burden, and overdependence, to support the argument that foreign aid is more harmful to sub-Saharan Africa development.

Debt burden

Foreign aid to sub-Saharan Africa has left many countries suffering due to unbearable debt burden.   Emerging statistics indicate that in the period between 1970 and 2002, a total of $540 billion loans were dispersed to Africa, and they paid back in excess of $550 billion, which is $10 billion more than the dispersed loans (Alemu & Lee, 2015).   Despite having paid back the excess loans, Africa stilled owed $293 billion by end of 2002 (Alemu & Lee, 2015). Apparently, the huge debt burden have a negative impact on the affected countries, because not only do the debt repayment services depress foreign exchange earnings, they also depress the economic growth rate, and reduce investment, and subsequently escalate poverty levels (Omotola & Saliu, 2009). As at 2013, the sub-Saharan Africa’s total external debt stood at 350 billion US dollars. This has been illustrated in the figure 2 below.  The question emerges why developed countries continue to issue loans to sub-Saharan countries while is evident it is doing more harm than the intended good in poverty alleviation.

Figure 2: Sub-Saharan Africa’s total external debt

Source: Gillanders (2016)

Abuzeid (2009) elaborates that most African countries attained political independence amidst very weak economic base. Therefore, owing to the heightened pressure to the post-colonial government to jump-start development programs, external funding seemed like the best option.  Besides, Ekanayake and Chatrna (2010) highlight that to encourage foreign investment post-colonial governments had to start some development programs, yet they lacked surplus funds for such activities thus making foreign loans as the best option.  Therefore, it is arguable that the initial foreign aids in form of loans to sub-Saharan African were a necessity to jump-start economic development in the region due to the aforementioned reasons above.  In fact,Moss et al. (2005) support that borrowing have positive impact on the economy and is one of the best alternatives for steering economic development during recession.  However, with continued borrowing, sub-Saharan countries had to bear the brunt of negative conditions attached to their debt and also deal with consequences of poor debt management (Moss et al., 2006).  This has been illustrated in the figure 3 below, where the national debt in most countries in the sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed a significant increase.

 

Figure 3: Nation debt of sub-Saharan countries in 2013 and 2016

Some scholars have attempted to demonstrate how foreign aid to Africa have worsened their debt crisis and thereby increasing poverty that it was intended to alleviate in the first place. Easterly and Easterly (2006) and Enyiuche and Obiefuna (2011) collaborate that the borrowing conditions alongside the high cost of servicing debts have continued to deepen debt crisis in sub-Saharan Africa.  Enyiuche and Obiefuna (2011) elaborate that the loans are not unconditional and external creditors give conditions such as political liberalisation, economy deregulation and devaluation of local currency. Such conditions have been found to have negative impact on local economies.  Moreover, Easterly and Easterly (2006) note that the poor management of the borrowed funds such as wasteful expenditures further increases the negative impact of foreign loans . Such and more factors continue to sink sub-Saharan African countries into severe debt burden, which has negative impact on local development.

Statistics indicate that debt burden problem is wide spread across most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, the external debt for sub-Saharan Africa stood at $215.7 billion in 2000 up from $164.9 billion in 1988 (Ogundipe et al. 2014). This is quite a high increase within a period of two years indicating that the thirst for external funding in the sub-Saharan Africa continue to increase , while in an ideal scenario it should be going down decades after independence. The increasing debts imply that these countries will continue to suffer negatively as servicing these debts puts pressure on their budgets and continue to widen their fiscal deficits.  As observed by Gillanders (2016), fiscal deficits continue to burden African countries in terms of depressed income and living standards, which further increases the level of poverty in these countries. Nigeria as one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa continues to experience severe debt burden which constrains their economic growth.  Enyiuche and Obiefuna (2011) noted that despite that Nigeria generates much foreign income from oil exports about 70% of its population live in absolute poverty on a dollar or less a day.  The above outcomes have necessitated international policy makers to call for redress in African debt crisis through debt relief and forgiveness having realised that foreign loans are undoing the intended good in alleviating poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.

Overdependence

Furthermore, the high levels of foreign aid to sub-Saharan Africa create a problem of overdependence.  Van de (2005) posit that the fact that sub-Saharan countries are used to receiving too much money from foreign donors creates overdependence and these countries lack motivation to promote local businesses since they have ready aid at their disposal. Apparently, such laxity prevents the countries from promoting local development and thus majority of their citizens remain in deplorable poverty conditions.  Moyo (2009a) notes that continuous provision of foreign aid to poor countries seems not to be making significant contribution in attaining self-sufficiency as the recipients lose the capability to come up with local solutions and end up being over-reliant of aids.  Brautigan and Knack(2004,p.256.) defined aid dependency as “ a situation in which the government is unable to perform many of the core functions of governments, such as the maintenance of existing infrastructures or the delivery of basic public services, without foreign aid funding and expertise”.  Brautigan and Knack (2004) added that aid dependency erodes state autonomy in decision making process and thus giving the donors leeway to dictate conditions before they could issue any help.   The World Bank survey in 1998 established that overreliance of food aid by the Somalia government was harmful to local development whereby Somalia ended up being the most dependent country on food aid than any other sub-Saharan Africa country.   In the preceding years before Somalia started receiving food aid, Somalia had a vibrant pastoral and agricultural economy and it had self-sufficiency in grains production in the early 1970s. However, the increased food imports in form of aids to Somali between 1979 and 1984 reduced local prices drastically which reduced the motivation for local crop farmers.  Once the farmers stopped producing in large numbers Somalia food deficit rose and the once rich farmers become poor as the country continued to rely of food aid from external donors (Gillanders, 2016).  To demonstrate that foreign aid is not always a solution to Africa development, Djankov et al.(2008) highlights that while UNDP spent $900,000 trying unsuccessfully to teach local farmers how to cultivate onions in north-east Ivory Coast, the neighbouring farmers in Burkina Faso had learnt how to grow onions commercially under similar agricultural practices without receiving foreign aid. The above further supports that foreign aid is the not the solution to sub-Saharan poverty problems as the overdependence might discourage the government from coming up with local solutions to Africa problems.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is evident that though foreign aid remains a major source of income for poor countries in sub-Saharan Africa, it is time to reconsider whether foreign aid is actually more harmful than beneficial. While concept of foreign aid may have had well-meaning intentions in stimulating economic developing in the post-colonial era, it is time to explore the negative impact of foreign aid to sub-Saharan Africa as the outcomes in the last few decades is not impressive.  As long as the intended goals in poverty alleviation have not been met, then it is meaningless to continue giving aid to sub-Saharan Africa and continue overbearing them with the debt burden and overdependence ramifications.  Generally, the realisation of economic development in sub-Saharan Africa may require more hard work than continuous influx of foreign aid, which creates overdependence and governments’ laxity in stimulating development projects.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Abuzeid, F.  (2009).  Foreign Aid and the” Big Push” Theory: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa. Stanford Journal of international relations, 11(1), 16-23.

Alemu, A. M., & Lee, J. S. (2015). Foreign aid on economic growth in Africa: A comparison of low and middle-income countries. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 18(4), 449-462.

Bräutigam, D. A., & Knack, S. (2004).Foreign aid, institutions, and governance in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic development and cultural change, 52(2), 255-285.

Calderisi, R. (2006). The trouble with Africa: Why foreign aid isn’t working. London: Macmillan.

Djankov, S., Montalvo, J. G., & Reynal-Querol, M. (2008). The curse of aid. Journal of economic growth, 13(3), 169-194.

Easterly, W., & Easterly, W. R. (2006). The white man’s burden: why the West’s efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. London: Penguin.

Ekanayake, E. M., & Chatrna, D. (2010). The effect of foreign aid on economic growth in developing countries. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 3, 1.

Enyiuche, A. C., & Obiefuna, A. O. (2011). Economic impact of external debt on economic growth of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Management Research, 6(1), 66-75.

Farzin, Y. H. (1991). Food aid: positive or negative economic effects in Somalia?. The Journal of Developing Areas, 25(2), 261-282.

Gillanders, R. (2016). The Effects of Foreign Aid in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Economic and Social Review, 47(3), 339-360.

Krumm, K. L. (1985). The external debt of sub-Saharan Africa: origins, magnitude, and implications for action. Geneva: World Bank.

Moss, T., Pettersson, G., & van de Walle, N. (2005). The Aid Institutions Paradox: Long-Term Costs of High Aid Dependency. Oxford: Queen Elisabeth House.

Moss, T., Pettersson, G., & Van De Walle, N. (2006). A Review Essay on Aid Dependency and State Building in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Aid-Institutions Paradox.Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 74; Mario Einaudi Center for International Studies Working Paper No. 11-05. Retrieved from: SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=860826 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.860826 .

Moyo, D. (2009a). Dead aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa. London: Macmillan.

Moyo, D. (2009b). Why foreign aid is hurting Africa. The Wall Street Journal, 11.

Ogundipe, A. A., Ojeaga, P., & Ogundipe, O. M. (2014). Is Aid Really Dead? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4 (10). Retrieved from:https://ssrn.com/abstract=2523500

Omotola, J. S., & Saliu, H. (2009). Foreign aid, debt relief and Africa’s development: problems and prospects. South African Journal of International Affairs, 16(1), 87-102.

Van de Walle, N. (2005). Overcoming stagnation in aid-dependent countries (p. 14). Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

 

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Service Guarantee

Service Guarantee

Introduction

According to Kandampully (2015), service failure is normally inevitable when it comes to the service industry. In light of this, it has been found that service failure usually happens when a firm fails to deliver according the expectations of the customers. In most situations, service failure result to loss of customer, which has adverse impacts to a firm. In attempt to maintain customers while attracting new ones, service guarantee strategy has been applied by various firms in the service industry. Taking this into consideration, this paper explores why service guarantee is used by firms in the service industry.

Why guarantee is a key aspect of a service business

According to Jin et al. (2016), service delivery has been regarded as one of the main mechanisms used in wining customer’s trust as well as commitment regarding the quality of service delivery in this view, Crisafulli et al. (2014) have defined service guarantee as the commitment by the service provider gives to the customer in relation to all or part of the service process.  A service guarantee has been regarded as a marketing tool that service firms use in reducing consumer risk perceptions as well as signify quality.  Through the use of service guarantee, firms typically entitle customers to various forms of compensation including refund or credit and replacement in case of service delivery failure. In most cases conditions are typically put on these compensations.

Guarantee has been regarded to be one of the key aspects of service delivery. Taking this into account, Meyer et al. (2014) have denoted that service guarantee usually plays a fundamental role in helping firms in focusing on the requirements of the customers. Precisely, through service guarantee, firms are able to understand what the customers want specifically during panning for the service guarantee. As such, it can be deduced that service guarantee helps firms in aligning guarantee with customer’s requirements as well as service concept.

Secondly, service guarantee plays an imperative role in helping firms understanding failure points. Specifically, as Crisafulli et al. (2014) explicate, data that is obtained in form of feedback from customers after service recovery can be utilised in understanding the causes of service failure. As such, it becomes easier for an organisation to design better service delivery services for the aim of avoiding similar cases of service failure.

Thirdly, according to Meyer et al. (2014), service guarantee typically works as a marketing tool. On this, owing the low entry barriers in the service industry, firms can offer different service guarantee schemes. These schemes in result play a profound role in attracting new customers while ensuring that the old ones are maintained.

Another main reason why service guarantee is important to an organisation is that it acts as a good source of feedback. In this consideration, Jin et al. (2016) have elucidated that in relation to service recovery, most of the customers usually do not feel comfortable in explaining about the service failures.  Therefore, providing service guarantee typically increases the chances of attending to the problems of the customers in cases something goes wrong. This sentiment has been echoed by Kandampully (2015), who has asserted that getting feedback from the customers is fundamental when it comes to ensuring continuous improvement process.

Lastly, Kandampully (2015) has explained that service guarantee typically plays a crucial role when it comes to helping firms in setting clear standards of service. Taking this into account, service guarantee focuses on clear expectations of customers and employees. Therefore, it helps in ensuring that there is no form of ambiguity, which would otherwise be interpreted different.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be deduced that the role of service guarantee in the service industry cannot be overlooked. This is because there are many reasons why is used as seen from the above.  Therefore, service guarantee should always be used by firms such as the Warehouse for the purpose of enhancing service recovery as well as continuous improvement.

 

 

References

Crisafulli, B., Singh, J., & Dall’Olmo Riley, F. (2014). Do organisational policies matter? The impact of service guarantee on customer perceptions of recovery fairness.

Jin, L., Huang, Y., & He, Y. (2016). When does a service guarantee work? The roles of the popularity of service guarantees and firm reputation. Tourism Management57, 272-285.

Kandampully, J. (2015). Service Guarantee: A Concept for Competitive Advantage. In Proceedings of the 1997 World Marketing Congress (pp. 249-249). Springer, Cham.

Meyer, J., Gremler, D. D., & Hogreve, J. (2014). Do service guarantees guarantee greater market value?. Journal of Service Research17(2), 150-163.

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Critical Analysis of Colour Application

Critical Analysis of Colour Application

Figure 1: White fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin

Source: http://www.waterhouse.samuseum.sa.gov.au/gallery/6784/white-fella-fish-trap/

According to Lidwel et al. (2010), colour is considered as one of the main fundamental visual aspects used in conveying meaning in art.  In this view, colour can e used efficiently for the purpose of conveying the intended message to the audience.  Therefore, the choice of colour in a specific art is largely dependent on the intended message and perceptions of the target audience. As such, just as indicated by Machajdik and Hanbury (2010), having relevant skills coupled with knowledge of colours to a significant extent helps designing great artworks. Taking this into consideration this paper seeks to critically analyse application of colours in the white fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin.

The white fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin is regarded as one of the main artworks in South Australia Museum.  In regards to this, the art is made of mixed media including fishing rods, wire, and discarded soya sauce bottles.  The artwork has been constructed through the use of traditional indigenous design (The Waterhouse Natural Science Art Prize, 2017). However, it was been made from various discarded materials of consumer excess.  Victoria Beresin constructed this art form the main purpose of representing the activities of indigenous people in regards to their controlled methods of fishing, hunting, as well as gathering.

According to Agoston (2013), combinations of colour in art play a fundamental role in determining its success. This sentiment has been echoed by Machajdik and Hanbury (2010), who has elucidated that colour combinations can either achieve success or have some weaknesses, which may considerably reduce the aesthetic appeal of the art.  Art cab lack attractiveness in the case when if the colours are not selected wisely.  Therefore, as Lidwel et al. (2010) assert, colour combination in art should be able to convey the desired message to the audience. This must be as a result of creativity as well as innovation.  Taking this into account, when it comes to the white fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin, there are strengths and weaknesses that come with the colour combination. In relation to the strengths, one of the mains ones is that the combination of red, black, and white colours has to a huge extent made the art appealing. Precisely, according to Agoston (2013), red colour, which is largely visible in the white fella fish trap art usually, attracts people instantly. This perhaps explains why the art is attractive. Notwithstanding these strengths that come with the colour combination of the above art, there are various weaknesses that can be seen. In this consideration, while the use of red colour makes the art attractive, it does not depict the main them presented by the art. The main them depicted by the art is controlled fishing. Therefore, the use of this colour combination is not related to controlled fishing. In fact, red colour has been used to show danger in various artworks. Therefore, for this case, the audience may fail to understand why controlled fishing by indigenous people is represented by colour red, which is mostly associated with danger. Taking this into consideration, the use of alternative colours would really help in passing the intended message to the audience. In light of this, the use of light blue colour would to a substantial extent improve the art work particularly when it comes to passing the main message of the art. On this, has explained that light blue is mostly used to present water bodies. Therefore, through replacing the red colour with blue in the art, it is fact that the theme of controlled fishing would make more sense in the art. Besides, the use of these colour combinations would still make the art to look attractive.

According to Agoston (2013), various artworks are usually symbolic, or related to certain cultural aspects.  Thus sentiment has been echoed by Lidwel et al. (2010), who has elucidated that most of the artworks are influenced culture. As such, the artwork is able to portray a message to the audience regarding the aspects presented. Taking this into consideration, when it comes to the white fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin, the art has to a considerable extent represented the indigenous Australian culture. Precisely, the white fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin represents fishing as one of the main activities conducted by indigenous Australian people. However, the art shows that the indigenous people of Australia were engaging in controlled methods of hunting, fishing as well as gathering. This was for the purpose of ensuring ongoing as well as food supply.  Taking this into account, while the art has represented the traditional culture of the Australians, it has helped in passing the message of the important of controlled methods of various activities such as fishing. The white fella fish trap art has played an important role in passing the message of conserving the environment. This cultural presentation has enhanced by the colour combination in the art. In view of this, through the use of red, black, and white colours, the art has become attractive, which in turn has making it possible for the message to be portrayed easily to the audience.

In conclusion, it has been established from this paper that colour combination in art usually plays an imperative role in conveying the intended message to the target audience.  As regards to the white fella fish trap art by Victoria Beresin, it has been established that the used of red, black and white colours have made it look appealing. Additionally, this combination has helped the art in passing the intended message to the audience. Nonetheless, it this paper has found that replacing the red colour with light blue would have enhanced the art considerably when it comes to representing the intended message.

 

 

 

Reference

Agoston, G. A. (2013). Color theory and its application in art and design (Vol. 19). Springer.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2010). Universal principles of design, revised and updated: 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design. Rockport Pub.

Machajdik, J., & Hanbury, A. (2010, October). Affective image classification using features inspired by psychology and art theory. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM international conference on Multimedia (pp. 83-92). ACM.

The Waterhouse Natural Science Art Prize. (2017). South Australian Museum. Retrieved from: http://www.waterhouse.samuseum.sa.gov.au/gallery/6784/white-fella-fish-trap/

 

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Work and Employment

Work and Employment

Work and Employment

Alienation has been defied by Reveley (2013) as the end result of capitalism and the workers in an organization are alienated by the product owners. Marx has presented that alienation occurs in the case that workers in workplaces are deprived the opportunity to think of being in control of their actions (Marquis, 2016). On the other hand, exploitation is defined as the cases where the relationship between the hours that and employee works is not proportioned to the payment that they receive. Alienation and exploitation affect the contemporary society. This essay discusses the cases of alienation in workplaces and its impacts.

Alienation has an impact in the contemporary society as a result of the fact that it influences the social status of the individual. Along these lines, it is deducible that alienation in the workplace is related to the contemporary society. As presented by Shantz, Alfes, and Truss (2014) the effort that is put by the employees today is aimed at increasing the number of profits for the capitalists rather than improving the satisfaction of the employees. This has made the employees act like machines in the workplace for the achievement of the capitalists’ profits goals.  The use of machines has increased the alienation of employees in the work environment since there is minimal interaction among the employees by themselves or with the managers.  The other ways in which one can be seen to be isolated is in the relation to the working environment and the ways that they are treated by the management of the organization.

Other than the urge of the capitalists to have more profits each time, the cases of alienation has resulted from the increasing needs of workers in the employment sector. In light of this, people could wish to be like others in their environment, people could wish to have distinct clothes, and to have a better living condition. As such, this has increased the cases of alienation among the employees and the managers.

There are four elements of alienation as identified by Marx (Shantz, Alfes, and Truss, 2014). First, there are the cases of alienation from the product labor whereby the employees in an organization work hard to increase the productivity for the employer but not for themselves. The second element of alienation is the element of alienation from the process of production. In this account, the workers will end up losing the sense of undertaking a whole job due to the cases of division of labor. The alienation of workers from the species being is another element of alienation in which workers are restrained from having creative performance leading to the denial of workers to have the sense of being human. The alienation of an individual from others is another element and workers areas not able to develop ideas by themselves or with others.

In regard to Blauner, alienation comprises of a sense of powerlessness, meaninglessness, isolation, and self-estrangement (Marquis, 2016). In this account a worker will feel the lack of the ability to undertake control of a work process. The process of division of labor results in the lack the ability of an individual employee to perform a meaningful purpose. The feeling of inability to take part in the formation of social relationship causes the employees to feel a sense of isolation while the feeling of lack of attainment of any fulfillment will result in the sense of self-estrangement.

In today’s economy, the cases of alienation and exploitation still occur due to the increasing gap between the capitalists and the poor individuals in the society. As such, it can be deduced that today people have been able to get the urge of selling their personality or the smile and the opinions that they have. The cases of alienation and exploitation have therefore been a challenge in that the cases of division of labor has helped in the extension of the competitive advantage of business as a result of the emotions and opinions of human beings. Alienation has even taken the advantage of exploiting the self of an individual. As the modern society develops the values that helped in the past and that defined the people and hence the explanation of the identity of people is becoming a challenge.

It can be concluded that the concept of alienation has been relevant for the past many years. In the thinking on the possible causes of alienation, there has been varying interpretation by Marxian analysis as well as the analysis by Blauner. Marx tries to instill the thoughts of the broad factors that lead to alienation in the society. On the other hand, Blauner focuses on alienation as a subjective condition in addition to being objective. The existence of alienation according to Blauner is based on the technological nature since the implementation of the new technology is ascertained to generate alienation.

References

Marquis, P. (2016). Writings on alienation and freedom.

Reveley, J. (2013). Understanding social media use as alienation: A review and critique. E-Learning and Digital Media, 10(1), 83-94.

Shantz, A., Alfes, K., & Truss, C. (2014). Alienation from work: Marxist ideologies and twenty-first-century practice. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(18), 2529-2550.

 

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Literature Review on Alcohol Consumption and Life Satisfaction

Literature Review on Alcohol Consumption and Life Satisfaction

The impact of alcohol consumption on the overall quality of life has been a subject of debate over the past many years. Taking this into consideration, while some scholars argue that alcohol consumption enhances life satisfaction, others have explicated that alcohol consumption of harmful to human health. In light of this, this literature review presents assertions of various studies regarding the topic of alcohol consumption and life satisfaction.

Firstly, the study by (Briasoulis et al. 792) focused on the correlation between consumption of alcohol and risks of hypertension in both men as well as women. In this study, systematic review of literature was done, where the researcher gathered relevant information from various electronic databases (Briasoulis et al. 792).  The results of this study revealed that heavy alcohol consumption is usually related to high risk of hypertension in both men as well as women.  While the study helped greatly in showing the impact of alcohol consumption on hypertension, the main limitation of this study is that the studies used did not consider different drinking patterns.  In relation to the research question, it can be deduced that this research has establish that alcohol consumption does not give life satisfaction.

This study by (Geiger and MacKerron 184-191) sought to explore whether alcohol can make someone happy. Taking this into consideration, this study examined alcohol and wellbeing through the use of fixed effects analysis of the relationships between alcohol consumption wellbeing within two different data types (Geiger and MacKerron 184).  While study 1 examined wave-to-wave changes in regards life satisfaction as well as past-week alcohol consumption, study 2 examined moment-to-moment changes in regards to happiness and alcohol consumption.  Study 1 found that there is no substantial relationship between alcohol consumption levels and life satisfaction. However, study 2 revealed strong as well a consistent moment-to-moment association between drinking events and happiness. Therefore, while the studies are biased considerably, it can be revealed that they are in line with the research question of this study.

The next study that has contributed greatly to the research topic is that one of (Davidson and Blackburn 482-487). This study aimed at examining the relationship between depressions and drinking outcome in individuals suffering from alcohol dependence. From the study, depressed together with non-depressed alcohol-dependent patients were followed up on two different occasions for a period of five months. This was after detoxification from alcohol (Davidson and Blackburn 483). Taking this into account, comprehensive measures of consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related issues, as well as abstinence status were considered throughout the five month period.  In view of this, this study found no significant differences between depressed patients and those with alcohol-dependence alone.  This was irrespective of whether the diagnosis of depression made pre-admission or post-detoxification (Davidson and Blackburn 483).  This research therefore concluded that depression and alcohol dependence are separate. Therefore, in relation to the research question, it can be deduced that alcohol consumption is associated with life satisfaction.

The study by Keane, (135-142), which has also contributed to the research question,   aimed at exploring that harm as well as pleasure that comes with alcohol consumption. In view of this, this article has examined secondary data for the purpose of understanding the harm and pleasure that comes with intoxication. From the study, it has been established that the changing role of intoxication when it comes to the drinking practices of young people may be difficult (Keane 140). Nonetheless, the study has suggested that various possibilities exist for encouraging less risky intoxication.  From this study, it has been established that intoxication cannot be reduced to harm, disorder or risk.  Additionally, it should not be celebrated as an authentic and unmediated expression of libidinal energy.  The main limitation of this article is that it has relied heavily on secondary data, which are subjective to a considerable extent. However, it has contributed significantly to the research question through indicating that despite the pleasure that comes with alcohol consumption, there are various harms associated with it.

Lastly, the study by Baum-Baicker (207-227) has contributed to this research question. This study has explored the health benefits of moderate consumption of alcohol. Taking this into consideration, this research utilise past studies on the benefits of alcohol consumption for the purpose of coming up with a comprehensive conclusion (Baum-Baicker 2012). From this study, it was established that light or moderate drinking typically benefits the physical health of individuals. However, the study found out that the subject of control of alcohol intake typically evokes strong emotional responses, which in most cases overshadow a logical assessment on whether healthy drinking should be integrated on a dietary plan (Baum-Baicker 2027). Therefore, the findings of this result can considerably help in providing a basis for making such an assessment. The use of secondary data alone has been limiting owing to the fact that it has provided conflicting information regarding the study topic. However, the study has provided insight to the research question to a considerable extent.

 

Work Cited

Baum-Baicker, Cynthia. “The health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: a review of the literature.” Drug and alcohol dependence 15.3 (1985): 207-227.

Briasoulis, Alexandros, Vikram Agarwal, and Franz H. Messerli. “Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Hypertension in Men and Women: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis.” The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 14.11 (2012): 792-798.

Davidson, Kate M., and Ivy M. Blackburn. “Co-morbid depression and drinking outcome in those with alcohol dependence.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 33.5 (1998): 482-487.

Geiger, Ben Baumberg, and George MacKerron. “Can alcohol make you happy? A subjective wellbeing approach.” Social Science & Medicine 156 (2016): 184-191.

Keane, Helen. “Intoxication, harm and pleasure: An analysis of the Australian National Alcohol Strategy.” Critical Public Health 19.2 (2009): 135-142.

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5G Technology of Mobile Communication: Literature Review

5G Technology of Mobile Communication: Literature Review

Over the last few decades, the world has witnesses a significant evolution in cellular communication technologies[1]. This is from the 1G Global System for Mobile to the current 4G and 5G networks.  The primary motivation for this has been the increasingly need for more bandwidth as well as lower latency.  IG networked, which was developed in the 1980 is typically based on analogue signal. Additionally IG network has low capacity, with bad voice quality. This sentiment has been backed up by various studies which have explicated that those problems contributed greatly to the invention of 2G network[2]. Taking this into account, 2G technology is used in transferring digital voice particularly over a longer distance as compared to the 1G network. However, 2G network cannot be used in transferring data such as software or email. 2G network typically consume less battery power[3]. Additionally, digital encoding, which is present in 2G networks usually play a significant role in improving the voice quality as well as reduction of noise in the line[4].  This explains why the 2G  network is preferred as compared to the 1G network.

The challenges of 2G network has been solved by the emergence of 3G network[5]. In this consideration, 2G network has been regarded as the best connection method in the world. 3G technology has faster data transfer rate as compared to the 2G.  Through the use of TDMA and CDMA, 3G network typically provides high speed internet as well as high quality audio[6]. This is in comparison with the 2G network.  Nonetheless, 3G technology usually consumes a lot of power in comparison to the 2G.  Additionally, that the cost of cellular infrastructure needed to support 3G technology, as well as the costs of upgrading base stations is high to a considerable extent. The need for more speed mobile connection has prompted the emergence of 4G technology[7]. In this view, 4G technology is basically an extension of 3G technology. A wide range of studies have revealed that 4G communication is faster and unique in comparison with the 3G. Additionally, it has been established that voice as well as video quality is reliable, and it is typically guaranteed to deliver data to intended destination.  Over the past couple of years, the use of 4G has gained a lot of popularity across many countries worldwide. Nonetheless, implementation of 4G technology is usually expensive to a considerable extent. Besides, while 4G network needs complex hardware, its power usage is significantly high[8].

With increasing demand of faster mobile networks, 5G network has come to solve a wide range of problems[9]. Taking this into consideration, 5G network communication had been regarded as a full set of wireless communication. Notwithstanding the fact that 5G Network has not yet been launched by any standardisation body of company, it performance has been projected to e superb. Through the use of 5G network, it has been found that users can be in a position of watching TV programs with clarity similar to that of high definition TV[10].  Additionally, user using 5G can be in a position of sending data much faster as compared to previous generations. In view of this, it has been argued that 5G technology will bring almost perfect real world wireless. With 5G technology, there will be no issue of wireless communication as well as wearable devices with capabilities of artificial intelligence[11].  Notwithstanding the numerous benefits that come with 5G technology, the speed that the technology is claiming seems hard to achieve owing t incompetent technological supports in most parts across the world.  Additionally, most of the old devices would not work well with 5G technology, meaning that they need to be replaced with new one. In this consideration, the use of 5g technology is an expensive deal.  Moreover, security as well as security issues associated with 5G technology is yet to be resolved. It is however believed that more security features will be incorporated in the 5G technology[12]. `

 

[1] Sun, K., & Kim, Y. (2017, July). Gap analysis for adapting the distributed mobility management model in 4G/5G mobile networks. In Network Softwarization (NetSoft), 2017 IEEE Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

 

[2] Pereira, V., & Sousa, T. (2004). Evolution of Mobile Communications: from 1G to 4G. Department of Informatics Engineering of the University of Coimbra, Portugal.

 

[3] Buttyán, L., & Hubaux, J. P. (2003). Stimulating cooperation in self-organizing mobile ad hoc networks. Mobile Networks and Applications8(5), 579-592.

 

[4] Rost, P., Banchs, A., Berberana, I., Breitbach, M., Doll, M., Droste, H., … & Sayadi, B. (2016). Mobile network architecture evolution toward 5G. IEEE Communications Magazine54(5), 84-91.

 

[5] Zheng, K., Yang, Z., Zhang, K., Chatzimisios, P., Yang, K., & Xiang, W. (2016). Big data-driven optimization for mobile networks toward 5G. IEEE network30(1), 44-51.

 

[6] Astély, D., Dahlman, E., Furuskär, A., Jading, Y., Lindström, M., & Parkvall, S. (2009). LTE: the evolution of mobile broadband. IEEE Communications magazine47(4).

 

[7] Khodashenas, P. S., Ruiz, C., Siddiqui, M. S., Betzler, A., & Riera, J. F. (2017). The role of Edge Computing in future 5G mobile networks: concept and challenges. Cloud and Fog Computing in 5G Mobile Networks, 349.

 

[8] Wang, R., Hu, H., & Yang, X. (2014). Potentials and challenges of C-RAN supporting multi-RATs toward 5G mobile networks. IEEE Access2, 1187-1195.

 

[9] Janevski, T. (2009, January). 5G mobile phone concept. In Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2009. CCNC 2009. 6th IEEE (pp. 1-2). IEEE.

 

[10] Gohil, A., Modi, H., & Patel, S. K. (2013, March). 5G technology of mobile communication: A survey. In Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP), 2013 International Conference on (pp. 288-292). IEEE.

 

[11] Osseiran, A., Boccardi, F., Braun, V., Kusume, K., Marsch, P., Maternia, M., … & Tullberg, H. (2014). Scenarios for 5G mobile and wireless communications: the vision of the METIS project. IEEE Communications Magazine52(5), 26-35.

 

[12] Zhang, H., Liu, N., Chu, X., Long, K., Aghvami, A. H., & Leung, V. C. (2017). Network Slicing Based 5G and Future Mobile Networks: Mobility, Resource Management, and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine55(8), 138-145.

 

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign direct investment in Nepal

Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign direct investment in Nepal

Introduction

With substantial increase in globalisation as well as internationalisation over the last few years, Foreign Direct Investments have witnessed a considerable increase in most countries across the world.  As such, Alam and Zubayer (2010, p.114) have opined that most of the multinational corporations usually capitalise on foreign business opportunities through engaging in foreign direct investments.  Foreign direct investment has been considered as a form of international inter-firm cooperation, which involves management control of foreign firm.  Most of the foreign direct investments are typically initiated for the purpose of actively controlling assets that are located in host countries.  A study by Majagaiya and Gu (2010, p.144) have found out that most business engage in foreign direct investments in order to expand to foreign markets or to gain access to suppliers. Foreign direct investments to low income countries has been seen to increase over the past few years. This has been attributed to various factors including low labour costs as well as favourable business environments.  While there are various advantages associated with direct foreign investments in low income countries, there are various disadvantages as well. Taking this into consideration, this essay seeks to explore the advantages and disadvantages that Nepal get from foreign direct investments.

Foreign direct investment in Nepal

According to Adhikari (2013), foreign direct investment in Nepal has been regarded as one of the most fundamental factors for the economic development. In light f this, the geographical advantage of Nepal, coupled with low labour costs has been considered to be among the main basic elements of attracting foreign investors.  Precisely, as explained by Mottaleb and Kalirajan (2010, p.372), Nepal is a potentially attractive location when it comes to foreign investors. In light of this, the country is sandwiched between two main emerging countries; China in the North, and India in the South. Taking this into account, manufacturers in Nepal usually have free access to the Indian market, and tariffs on imported raw materials are usually lower in the country as compared to other countries in South Asia. Besides, as Sahoo et al. (2013) explicate, the varied climate, natural resources, as well as terrain provide a plethora of niche opportunities in regards to foreign investments.   Over the last couple of decades, Nepal has attracted various foreign direct investments in niche sectors such as light manufacturing, tourism, as well as mineral deposits.  As asserted by Majagaiya and Gu (2010, p.144), inflows of Foreign Direct Investment have recorded an upward trend over the last couple of years.  In this consideration, in 2016, Nepal received 106 million US dollars in FDI in 2016. This was more than double the amount that was received in 2015. The total stock of FDI in Nepal is currently at 653 million US dollars.  Despite the fact that inflow of foreign investment in Nepal is increasing, it is worth noting that it is still low in comparison with other countries in South Asia. In light of this, Nepal has untapped potential n the tourism as well as hydropower industries. This explains why the country is expected to increase its FDI inflows in the next couple of years. This will see foreign direct investment having significant impact on the overall economy of the country.

Advantages of foreign direct investment in Nepal

According to Srinivasan et al. (2011, p.237), there are various advantages associated with foreign direct investment in Nepal. However, the main ones include capital transfer, creation of new employment, transfer of new technology and transfer of knowledge.  As regards to capital transfer, Sahoo et al. (2013) have explained that most of the multinational corporations usually invest in long term projects. In this consideration, by virtue of their large size, coupled by financial strength, most of the multinational corporations normally have access to financial resources that are not available by other local firms in the host countries.  While these financial resources may be from the internal sources of the company, it may be from borrowed money from capital markets. Through increase in capital flows, Mottaleb and Kalirajan (2010, p.382) have explained that economic growth is enhanced to a considerable extent. This is due to the fact that domestic investment is enhanced. In relation to foreign direct investment in Nepal, as aforementioned, the total stock of FDI in the country is currently at 653 million US dollars. This means that foreign direct investment in the country has increase capital inflow to a considerable. With this large amount of capital, the economy of the country has improved immensely, which has resulted to significant growth of the domestic market.

When it comes to creation of new employment, Adhikari (2013) has emphasised that foreign direct investment typically plays an imperative role in creating employment to people in the host country. In light of this, owing to cheap labour in low income countries, outsourcing is typically o increase by global companies.  This sentiment has been echoed by Alam and Zubayer (2010, p.114), who have explicated that in countries where capital is scarce but labour is abundant, creation of new employment opportunities is one of the most profound impacts of foreign direct investments.  Additionally, through foreign direct investment, domestic private sector normally benefits through entering into business relations with the foreign invests by supplying various inputs as well as processing products of foreign investors.  Through promoting both forward as well as backward production with domestic firms, extra jobs are usually created. Consequently, further economic activities are encouraged to a huge extent.  Along these arguments, creation of jobs has not been an exception when it comes to foreign direct investment in Nepal (Yan & Majagaiya 2011, p.242). Taking this into consideration, employment opportunities created by foreign market investment in Nepal stands at 40000 people.  This has greatly assisted young people in using their knowledge, skills, as well as labour within their country. Additionally, these opportunities have helped them in enhancing their ability as well as creation of skilled human resources.

As regards to transfer of new technology, Majagaiya and Gu (2010, p.144) have posited that the fundamental role played by foreign direct investments in technological progress cannot be overlooked.  Technology is transferred to low income countries rend to be more modern and environmentally friendlier as compared to what is available locally.  A study on the relation between foreign direct investment has revealed that technological transfer through FDI typically contribute significantly to productivity as well as economic growth in host countries.  Better technology as a result of foreign direct investment can be applied in other aspects of the nation for the purpose of enhancing further development. In this consideration, foreign direct investment in Nepal has led to advanced technology in the country. Specifically, Sahoo et al. (2013) have found out that most of the foreign firms have considered transferring their technology to Nepal.  Technological advancements as a result have helped in boosting other sectors of economy in the country.

Lastly, when it comes to knowledge transfer, Mottaleb and Kalirajan (2010, p.389) has explained that FDI typically increases the existing managerial knowledge in the host country through transfer of skills, labour training, as well as transfer of new managerial and organisation practice.  This sentiment has been backed up by Adhikari (2013), who has explained that through foreign direct investment, employees are able to gain new skills through both explicit and implicit training. In ideal situations, training in foreign firms is of higher quality owing to the fact that it is only productive firms that do trade.  Employees rake these skills with them when they enter the domestic labour market. Consequently, managerial efficiency together with entrepreneurial capabilities is enhanced considerably.  This has been the case with Nepal, where foreign knowledge has been transferred to the country.  Consequently, the knowledge has been transferred to other firms in the country, which as a result has improved the country’s economy significantly.

Disadvantages of foreign direct investment in Nepal

Notwithstanding the above advantages of foreign direct investment in Nepal, there are various disadvantages as well. Nonetheless, the main disadvantages include adverse effect on competition, adverse effect on environment, and poor working conditions of workers. As regard to adverse effect on competition, Sahoo et al. (2013) argue that despite the fact that foreign direct investment helps in boosting competition, host countries usually worry that the subsidiaries of the foreign multinational corporations may have greater economic power as compared to the local competitors. As such, by the virtue of the large size, multinational corporations may consider drawing on funds generated elsewhere for the purpose of subsidizing their costs on the host country. Consequently, local companies can easily be driven out of business, allowing the foreign firms to monopolise. Such, concerns as explained by Srinivasan et al. (2011, p.237), typically tend to be greater in countries that have few larger firms on their own such as Nepal. In other words, such adverse impacts on competition are normally seen in low income countries. Precisely, when it comes to Nepal, foreign direct investments have substantially affected competition in the country. Taking this into consideration, multinational corporations have been seen to drive away local firms. For instance, Pepsi and Coca-cola have been seen to dominate the soft drink industry in the country, locking out other local firms.

When it comes to the adverse impact on the environment, Majagaiya and Gu (2010, p.144) have denoted that in low income countries such as Nepal, a large volume of direct foreign investment is usually concentrated n natural resources sector. To add on this, Mottaleb and Kalirajan (2010, p.396) has asserted that most of these countries typically have less strict regulatory regimes. In fact, a study conducted by Srinivasan et al. (2011, p.237) revealed that sometimes most of these countries deliberately attempt loosen their legal requirements for the primary purpose of attracting foreign direct investments. While these countries benefit greatly from these investments as aforementioned, the negative impacts on the ecosystems as well as environment bring a lot of disasters in the long run. Besides, even for those firms that do not use the natural resources of the host country, their negative impact on the environment cannot be overlooked. This is due to the facts that cause various forms of pollution including air as well as water pollution. Similarly, in relation to Nepal, the negative environmental impacts of foreign direct investment cannot be underestimated. In this consideration, some multinational corporations in Nepal such as Surya Tobacco have been accused of polluting the environment through emission of excessive carbon dioxide (Yan & Majagaiya 2011, p.242). This has resulted to degradation of the environment to a huge extent.

Lastly, in regards to poor working conditions of workers, a plethora of studies have revealed that the working conditions of workers in most of multinational firms have been of great concern in most of the countries particularly low incomes (Yan  & Majagaiya 2011, p.242). In this light, most of the multinational corporations usually subject labourers to harsh environmental conditions that are considered sub-humane. Such working conditions are coupled with poor pay. This sentiment has been echoed by Alam and Zubayer (2010, p.114), who have asserted that owing to the fact that most MNE prefer outsourcing cheap labour, which in turn turns to be exploitative. When it comes to Nepal, poor working conditions have been found in various multinational corporations. Poor pay of employee has also been witnessed among many multinational corporations in the country.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it has been established from this essay that foreign Direct Investments have witnessed a considerable increase in most countries across the world.  Foreign direct investments to low income countries has been seen to increase over the past few years. This has been attributed hugely to various factors such as low labour costs as well as favourable business environments.   It has been established that Nepal is one of the low income countries that have experience increase in foreign direct investment over the past few years. Various advantages associated with foreign direct investment in Nepal. However, the main ones include capital transfer, creation of new employment, transfer of new technology and transfer of knowledge. Despite the above advantages of foreign direct investment in Nepal, there are various disadvantages as well. Nonetheless, the main disadvantages include adverse effect on competition, adverse effect on environment, and poor working conditions of workers

 

 

References

Adhikari, R. 2013, Foreign Direct Investment in Nepal: Current status, prospects, challenges (No. 01/13). Working Paper.

Alam, MS & Zubayer, M. 2010, ‘Intra regional foreign direct investment (FDI) prospect in South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region’, International Journal of Economics and Finance2(3), 114.

Majagaiya ,KP & Gu, Q 2010, ‘A time series analysis of foreign direct investment and economic growth: A case study of Nepal’, Editorial Board, 144.

Mottaleb, KA. & Kalirajan, K 2010, ‘Determinants of foreign direct investment in developing countries: A comparative analysis’, Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research4(4), 369-404.

Sahoo, P , Nataraj, G & Dash, RK 2013, Foreign direct investment in South Asia: Policy, impact, determinants and challenges. Springer Science & Business Media.

Srinivasan, P, Kalaivani, M & Ibrahim, P 2011, ‘An empirical investigation of foreign direct investment and economic growth in SAARC nations’, Journal of Asia Business Studies5(2), 232-248.

Yan, X & Majagaiya, KP 2011,’Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth Case Study of Nepal’, International Journal of Business and Management6(6), 242.

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Analyses of Black Swan Film Scene using the Freud’s Psychoanalytic Concept

Analyses of Black Swan Film Scene using the Freud’s Psychoanalytic Concept

Introduction

The Freud’s psychoanalytic concept has been used in various settings in explaining the behaviour of human beings. However, the application of Freud’s psychoanalytic concept in films has been common over the last couple of years. In this light, the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept has been found useful in showing the personality of characters in a film. Taking this into consideration, this paper seeks to analyse a scene from the film Black Swan using the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept, the first section of the paper provides an overview of the film and the selected scene. The second part of the paper provides an overview of the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept. The last paper provides analysis of the selected scene through the use of Freud’s psychoanalytic concept.

Overview of the Black Swan film and the chosen scene

In the film Black Swan, Thomas Leory, who is the artistic Director of a new ballet company in New York City is mounting Swan Lake as the next production of the company. Owing to this, most of the ballerinas in the company are aspirin the lead. This position would have gone to the former principle dancer of the company Beth, before her forced retirement. Beth is in her 40s, which make it her unfit for the position, which needs a younger person (Aronofsky & Pictures, 2010).  The film has depicted that no one who is interested in the role more than Nina Sayers, who is passionate dancer since her childhood. In this regard, Nina wants to become like Beth in all aspects. Nina lives with Erica, her overbearing mother, and a former ballerina.  Nina is proficient as well as hardworking dancer, who is able to portray the essence of the innocent white swan. Nonetheless, Thomas does not believe that Nina has the dark passion needed in order to portray the black swan. However, unexpected move by Nina is able is to convince Thomas that he she can portray the black swan, and he gives her the lead (Swan, 2010).  Thomas, however on various occasions seeks for sexual advances from Nina. Nina feels that her new place is highly threatened by Lily, a new ballerina from San Francisco. Lily is able to portray the aspect of the black swan in a better way as compared to Nina. As the two dancers expand their intense rivalry into twisted friendship, Nina starts to get more in touch with her dark side.  This is recklessness, which threaten to destroy her.  As Nina works diligently to be perfect in both white as well as black swan, she descends into madness (Fisher & Jacobs, 2011).

The selected scene is where Thomas tries to kiss Nina while in his office, but Nina seems disinterested and bites him instead. In this scene, Nina visits Thomas in his office, a day after he tells her that she does not fit the role of a black swan. In her visit, Nina tells Thomas that she has practiced the black swan dance, and now wants the role. Thomas, however, informs her that he has already given the role to Veronica.  As Nina begins to leave the office, Thomas slams the door and asks her why she is giving up. At this moment, he grabs her face and passionately kisses her. Nina is angered by this unwanted advance, that she bites him on the lip before running out of the office. While this shocks Thomas, it also impresses him on equal measure.

Overview of the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept

According to the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept, personality typically develops through a series of phases. Each is these phases is usually characterised by particular internal psychological conflict.  According to this theory, the behaviour of human being is a result of interactions among the three main components of the mind. These are the id, ego, and superego (Mitchell & Black, 2016).  The Freud’s psychoanalytic concept usually places a lot of emphasis on the role of unconscious psychological conflicts when it comes to shaping behaviour as well as personality. As explicated by Kline (2013), dynamic interactions among these fundamental parts of mind progress through various psychosexual stages of development. As regard to the component of id, it is considered as the most primitive of the three structures. Taking this into consideration, it is typically involved with the instant gratification of physical needs as well as urges. The component of id, as argued by Cervone and Pervin (2015) operates entirely unconsciously, which means operating outside the conscious mind.  When it comes to the aspect of the superego, it is typically concerned with social rules as well as morals, that are similar to what many people call refer to conscience or moral compass. The component of superego develops as a child learns what the values of a culture. Lastly, on regards to the aspect of ego, it is the rational and pragmatic part of personality. Ego is less primitive in comparison with the id, and it is usually considered to be partly conscious and partly unconscious.  In this view, Mitchell and Black (2016) have argued that the component of id plays a fundamental role in balancing the demands of the id and ego when it comes to the practical context or reality.

Analyses of the chosen scene using the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept

The scene where Thomas tries to kiss Nina while in his office, but Nina seems disinterested and bites him instead can be analysed through the use of the Freud’s psychoanalytic concept.  This in relation to the character of Thomas in that specific scene. Precisely, Thomas has a strong urge to kiss Nina inside the office. This is the id component of his mind, and this explains the strong urge he has towards kissing her. In light of this, for Thomas, it is only through kissing Nina that will satisfy her physical desire. This is as depicted in the scene. Through the use of Mise-en-scène technique, the id component of the Thomas’s mind is illustrated superbly. Taking this into account, as noted by Fisher and Jacobs (2011), the use of Mise-en-scène technique usually plays a fundamental role in describing the design aspect of a film production in terms of visual theme. When applied in film, Mise-en-scène technique takes into account all that appear before a camera as well as its arrangement in terms of composition, set, actors, consumes, as well as lighting. In this particular scene, the aspect of Mise-en-scène technique has been used, where the scene is in an office where only Thomas and Nina are inside. Additionally, the room is dimly lit for the purpose of setting mood as well as suggesting the state of mind of the character. In this point of view, the atmosphere in the room implies to the viewer that Thomas is up to something, or need some form of sexual favours from Nina. Therefore, through the use of the Mise-en-scène technique in this context, the scene has been able to create the aspect of believability among the viewers. Consequently, the id component of Thomas has been portrayed to a considerable extent. In addition to this, this scene has employed the technique of characterisation for the purpose or revealing the personality of Thomas as a womaniser. Precisely, through kissing despite her not wanting, it shows the personality of Thomas in relation to his sexuality. This technique of characterisation has helped the scene in portraying the component of id.

Despite the strong urge that Thomas has in regards to kissing Nina, he knows that it is not right.  This is where the aspect of super ego comes in. Precisely, given that Thomas has known Nina for just few hours, he understands that kissing her is not right.  From the scene, Thomas is seen moving towards Nina, and later gets back to his seat in the office. From this point of view, it can be deduced that Thomas is fighting his argue to kiss Nina. Precisely, he understands that it is not right to kiss Nina, and this puts him in confused situations. The technique of performance has been used perfectly in this scene for the purpose of showing the component of super ego. This has been portrayed through facial expression of Thomas, where the viewers can clearly see that he is not comfortable with what she is about to do. Given the fact that Thomas understands that sexual advances that she is making to Nina is are wrong, he tries to tell Nina that her role as a black swan is not perfect. From this perspective, he wants to win Nina, owing to the fact that Nina desperately wants the position as ballerina in the club. Therefore, through telling Nina that she is not perfect, he just want to take advantage of that situation despite knowing that it is not right.

In attempt to balance his id and superego, Thomas compromises the situation. Precisely, after he tries to kiss Nina, but Nina rejects it through biting, he does not force himself into her again. Instead, he takes some steps behind.  Although he is about this, he is highly impressed that Nina is now able to show her dark side. From this point of view, just as argued by Fisher and Jacobs (2011), through leaving Nina alone after showing disinterests, Thomas is able to balance his id and superego. For the purpose of portraying this aspect, the director of the movie has employed various films techniques. Taking this into consideration, the scene has employed the characterisation technique to a considerable extent. In this regard, the scene does not only portray Thomas as a womaniser, but also as a violent man. However, the same scene portrays Thomas as a submissive man, as after Nina walked refuses to be kissed, she does not force her anymore. The technique of performance has also been used in depicting the aspect of ego in this scene.  This is where Thomas moves backwards asking Nina “You bit me? I can’t believe you bit me”.  Thomas then just stares at Nina, as she apologises before walking out. It is from this point of view that the viewer can deduce that Thomas has given up on Nina in relation to his desire to either kisses or sexually assault her.  In terms of cinematography, tone variation has also been used in this scene to illustrate the aspect of ego. This is where Thomas just shout at Nina she refuses her advances, but he just stay there without doing anything.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be argued that psychological movies usually play a fundamental role in explaining various psychological concepts. While there are various psychological movies that have been released, Black Swan is one of the most popular films. From this paper, it has been seen that scene is where Thomas tries to kiss Nina while in his office, but Nina seems disinterested and bites him instead can be analysed through the use of Freud’s psychoanalytic concept. This concept argues that the behaviour of human being is a result of interactions among the three main components of the mind. These are the id, ego, and superego. Taking the selected scene into consideration, when it comes to the aspect of id, Thomas has a strong urge to kiss Nina inside the office. This is the id component of his mind, and this explains the strong urge he has towards kissing her. As regards to the aspect of superego, despite the strong urge that Thomas has in regards to kissing Nina, he knows that it is not right.  This is where the aspect of super ego comes in. Lastly, when it comes to the aspect of ego, after he tries to kiss Nina, but Nina rejects it through biting, he does not force himself into her again. Instead, he takes some steps behind. In order to depict the three aspects in this scene, various techniques have been used including characterisation, performance, and Mise-en-scène.

 

 

References

Aronofsky, D., & Pictures, F. S. (2010). Black Swan [film]. EUA: Fox Searchlight Pictures.

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L. A. (2015). Personality, binder ready version: theory and research. John Wiley & Sons.

Fisher, M., & Jacobs, A. (2011). Debating Black Swan: Gender and Horror. FILM QUART65(1), 58-62.

Kline, P. (2013). Fact and Fantasy in Freudian Theory (RLE: Freud). Routledge.

Mitchell, S. A., & Black, M. (2016). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.

Swan, B. (2010). A film distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures. Directed by D. Aronofsky.

 

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Contextualising Leadership

Contextualising Leadership

Being raised in China, I have been in a position of understanding the aspect of leadership as depicted in the Chinese culture. In this view, leadership is China is typically valued to a considerable extent, and all leaders are always respected. This has been depicted by the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, which put China to have a higher power distance as compare to most cultures. Growing up in the Chinese culture, I have had the opportunity of understanding that leadership in China normally requires a lot of commitment and drive. This explains why leaders in China are highly appreciated and respected.

In view of the above, this chapter explores the aspects of leadership of China and compares those aspects to those of the political and legal system of New Zealand. This is in terms of women and leadership, leadership symbols, as well as age and leadership.

The evolution of thought regarding women and leadership has sparked various discourses over the last many years.  As noted by By and Burnes (2013), leadership requirements have over the past couple of years increased prompting many women to take various leadership positions in the society. This sentiment has been stressed by Kelsey (2015), who has explicated that under various circumstances, women have come up to the front, taking up several leadership responsibilities that address the needs of the society. Today, women have been in a position of managing complex as well as multiples roles in the society, which to a substantial extent helped in development of a wide range of aspects within the society.  Taking this into account, it has been found that over the past few years, women have come out of their traditional garb, and made fundamental decisions within the society for the primary aim of bringing change. Leadership styles have been found to vary significantly from one person to another depending on specific contexts within the society. For women, DuBrin (2013) has explained that it is their capacity   to influence others that make them great as well as wonderful leaders. Nonetheless, women leadership typically face a wide range of challenges that make it hard for them to conduct their roles including discrimination. This explains why despite the many years of progress, women in leadership have presented a minuscule percentage in most societies across the globe.

Over the last few decades, women leadership has been embraced significantly in the China. Taking this into consideration, women leadership has been found in political and business settings. This is particularly when it comes to teaching and administration in schools, ministry to the elderly, as well as justice activities. As presented by Beamish (2012), there has been acceptance of women leaders in the county including the fact that there has been an inclusion of women in the current politburo. This has never happened since the formation. This is a clear indication of the part that women leaders in the community and hence ensuring that women are considered for political positions as well. Additionally, the study by Beamish (2012) indicates that the advocacy that has been put forward for the training of leaders has helped in ensuring that it is easy for the community to accept the leadership abilities that are shown by women. Women have taken part in the learning about management skills, as well as techniques used in campaigning and hence ensuring that they are able to take part in vying for the positions. Furthermore, there have been quotas set for the women to learn in the kind of leadership that can be fundamental for the enhancement of the standard of living and in the improvement of the economy of the country. The advocacy for women leadership in China as well has taken into consideration the role that is played by the media and hence they have been involved in the development of women leaders. The availability of political roles models as will have played a critical role in supporting the urge for getting political positions.

Just like in the Chinese culture, woman leadership in the political system of New Zealand has been advocated hugely over the past couple of years. Taking this into consideration, Kelsey (2015) has explained that gender equality in political power in most industrialised societies have grown tremendously in the last five decades. This has not been an exceptional when it comes to New Zealand. In this perspective, more women in the country are now running for, and being elected to national parliaments. Precisely, about 32 percent of woman elected in the last general elections are women. Despite the fact that representation of women in the political arena has been overlooked considerably in the past years, the struggle for equal representation has remained critical in the country.  The advocacy of women leadership in New Zealand has been considered to essential for legitimacy as well as for political reasons. In this consideration, research has revealed women who are in top political positions in the country are seen as role models, who encourage women to engage in politics.  The result of this is to increase political interest as well as knowledge of men. With more and more women becoming engaged in politics, they are likely to dominate the political scene of New Zealand in the near future.

According to Lawrence and Beamish (2012), leadership symbols have been found to be common in most societies as well as organisations across the world. In view of this, leadership symbols have to a considerable extent are typically used as part and parcel of leadership role and culture.  Notwithstanding the fact that leadership symbols usually vary considerable from one society to another, Smith (2013) has noted that most symbols are well understood by the member of the particular community. Besides, these symbols typically represent various values in the community as well as the behaviours expected of leaders.  These symbols are also known to command respect to a significant extent.

As noted by Chen (2014), there are various leadership symbols as well as symbols of national unity that have been used in the Chinese over the last many years. The Great Wall of China is one of the symbols of leadership in the country. The wall is visited by thousands of people over the years and is considered as one of the longest construction that has ever been created by man. This is a clear indication of great leadership in the county. As such, the first rulers of the country helped in the development of a defensive wall for protection against any invaders who could harm people of who could have an intention of taking the fertile and from the Chinese. The leaders as well take part in ensuring that they uphold the national unity in the county. There are other leadership symbols that are found in China including the various insignia or the devices that are used in denoting the position of the president. The other symbols of leadership used by the president are the flags and the sashes. On the other hand, there are symbols that are used in symbolizing the leadership displayed by the imperial groups such as regalia, orbs, and scepters. Some of the symbols that are used in China are used to signify the objects that are practical. The social economic leader is used to wearing words or a coat of arms and hence helping in ensuring that all the leaders can be able to manage since the main symbol of leadership is having a stately home which has not be achievable for all the leaders.

Just like in China, there are various leadership symbols present in the Maori leadership. Taking this into account, one of the most common leadership symbols is the toki (adze). The toki usually represents strength.  In the traditional Maori society, the toki was used as a tool of cutting down trees. Nonetheless, in the modern world, the toki has been used as a leadership symbol, where it is world around the neck. Therefore, owing that it represents strength as aforementioned, when leaders wear it, it depicts their strength within the society.  Another Maori leadership symbols is the pikorua (twist). The symbols, as argued by Jensen et al. (2014) typically represent the path of life, and it symbolises the string bond that between two loved ones. Additionally, the symbol has been found to be a powerful expression of loyalty owing to the fact that the arm of the twist has no end point. Therefore, as a leadership symbol, the pikorua insinuates that leaders should be loyal to their followers. Additionally, it denotes that leaderships should work towards establishing string and healthy relationships within the society. Just like in the China Culture, the leadership symbols in the Maori society are critical when it comes to the values that are related with leadership. In this regards, just as in China, leadership symbols in the Maori society are respected by people to a considerable extent.  This is due to the fact that their meanings are normally known by most of the people.

Age and leadership

Notwithstanding the stereotype that older leaders tend to be wiser as compared to younger leader, Lawrence and Beamish (2012) have explicated that that age and wisdom are usually not connected directly. In this regard, age has been found to affect leadership in a wide range of ways depending on the personal beliefs as well as viewpoints. While some leaders have been found to become more effective leaders as they get older, others have been found to become less effective.  In this view, a wide range of interpretivism schools of thoughts have denoted that effectiveness of leader is note determined by his or her age. Nonetheless, it has been found that most of the young leaders usually tend to use either transactional or transformational styles of leaders. On the other, when it comes to older people, they have been seen to use passive-avoidant style.

Age and leadership are accorded as important factors to be taken into consideration in the Chinese community. As such, Shen and Cooley (2013)has revealed that the leadership activities that are carried out in the Chinese community are numerous including the cases where there are organisations for youth rallies for encouraging the youth in becoming good leaders. Moreover, leadership is viewed as an all-inclusive activity that should consider all the individuals in a given community.  However, the Chinese culture supports that there are advantages of encouraging the youth to take part in leadership activities for them to gain experience from the older population. Besides, the training of the young leaders will help in eliminating cases where there could be a vacuum in the kind of leadership. Along these lines, the youth are trained for the leadership positions from a tender age. Additionally, Chinese community supports the virtue of having a democratic leadership. Lawrence and Beamish (2012) adduce that the leadership forums that are organized in different occasions allow the youth to take part in giving ideas in the measures that are put in place for the management of the many individuals. The older leaders as well have an obligation in the community to ensure that the youth are well informed of the different styles of leadership that can be used. As eluded by Shen and Cooley (2013)the Chinese leaders who are older should display a merciful behaviour and act like good Samaritans. This will help the youth in having people to emulate.

In New Zealand legal system, leadership is made up of people of different ages. As such, there are individuals of varying ages on the political positions, business leaderships, as well as in the community. For instance, there has been an increase in the number of young leaders in the business sector as a result of the development in technological innovation. Jensen et al., (2014) adduce that the New Zealand leaders work hand in hand with the business community in the development of the economy of the country. In relation to the ages for one to be a candidate for the position of the prime minister of New Zealand, the minimum age requirement is 18 years. However, an individual of any age and who is eligible of electing qualifies for the position of a member of parliament. Along these lines, it is deducible that individuals of all ages are able to become leaders in New Zealand. Nonetheless, leadership in the business sector in the country has incorporated people of all ages depending on the ideas and the zeal of service that each of the individuals has. As such, Kelsey (2015) depicts that the youth with a positive attitude and enough perseverance are able to become leaders at a younger age in New Zealand.

All women have needs to be encouraged and for their dignity to be upheld.  Along these lines, the talents that ladies have should be recognized by the other leaders at the young age for them to be developed fully. However, in New Zealand, the women are still under represented in some sectors especially in the political field. A significant number of women may have the experience of working in the community projects and in undertaking leadership roles. Besides, there have been challenges faced from the senior management in the political pyramid. The main causes of the under representation of women in New Zealand results from the fact that there has been low financial capabilities among the women in the community. This has led to the lack of the ability for them to undertaken vigorous campaigns as compared to their male competitors.The other factor that has been a challenge for the women leadership  in the country is the fact that there is a lower education standard for the women. As such, there are few women in the education sector who have achieved distinguishing academic qualifications like completing the highest level of education. This leads to the reduction in the ability of the women to compete for high position in the political and the business fields.

Conclusively, this chapter has revealed that most of the leadership aspects advocated in China are also advocated in the political and legal systems in New Zealand. This is in terms of women and leadership, leadership symbol, and age and leadership. For instance when it comes to women and leadership, just like in the China, woman leadership in the political system of New Zealand has been advocated hugely over the past couple of years. This explained why women leaders have increased in both settings over the last couple of years. However, the number of women may still be low in the political field as compared to the a male compatriots due the fact that there level of education achieved by many women is still low.

There are various lessons that one can learnt from the comparison of leadership between the China and the political and legal system in New Zealand.  One of the main lessons is that women leadership should be appreciated and advocated in all cultures. Besides, leaders should be elected or chosen irrespective of their age. Through such, the young people as well as women will be empowered to a considerable extent, which will steer the society to higher levels.

 

 

References

By, R. T., &Burnes, B. (Eds.). (2013). Organizational change, leadership and ethics: Leading organizations towards sustainability. Routledge.

Chen, Y. Y. (2014). Analyze the combination of national symbols and design aesthetics. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 989, pp. 5144-5147). Trans Tech Publications.

DuBrin, A. J. (Ed.). (2013). Handbook of Research on Crisis leadership in Organizations. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Jensen, K., Scott, R., Slocombe, L., Boyd, R., &Cowey, L. (2014). The management and organisational challenges of more joined-up government: New Zealand’s Better Public Services reforms.

Kelsey, J. (2015). The New Zealand experiment: A world model for structural adjustment?. Bridget Williams Books.

Lawrence, J. T., & Beamish, P. W. (Eds.). (2012). Globally responsible leadership: Managing according to the UN global compact. Sage.

Ramsay, E., McGregor, J., & McCarthy, D. (2014). New Zealand’s experiment: closing the gender gap in higher education leadership through cumulative cultural change. In 8th European Conference on Gender Equality in Higher Education, Vienna University of Technology, Austria.

Shen, J., & Cooley, V. E. (2013). A resource book for improving principals’ learning-centered leadership. Peter Lang.

Smith, P. A. (Ed.). (2013). Dynamic Leadership Models for Global Business: Enhancing Digitally Connected Environments: Enhancing Digitally Connected Environments. IGI Global

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Does the theory of comparative advantage make a convincing case for free trade?

Does the theory of comparative advantage make a convincing case for free trade?

The theory of comparative advantage is one of the most profound concepts of international trade.  This is particularly with the rapid development of international trade over the last couple of years. In line with the Ricardian model, countries are typically assumed to differ only in respect to their productive capacities[1]. It was in this ideology that Ricardo illustrated the principle of comparative advantage. From this point of view, it has been argued by various interpretivism schools of thoughts that the theory of comparative advantage usually makes a convincing case for free trade. Taking this into consideration, this essay is devoted to explored why the theory of comparative advantage make convincing case when it comes to free trade.

Comparative advantage in relation to international trade refers to the ability of a country to produce goods or services at a lower opportunity cost than other countries.  In regards to this, the theory of comparative advantage ideally lays out the cases that all actors can benefit mutually from cooperation as well as voluntary trade.  This explains why the theory has been one of the solid foundations of free trade.  The theory of comparative advantage typically upholds that if countries specialise in producing goods and services where they have a relatively lower opportunity cost, then there will be a significant enhancement in the economic welfare[2].  For instance, the comparative advantage of China in relation to the United States is cheap labour. In this view, Chinese workers have been found to produce most consumer goods at a significantly lower opportunity costs.  On the other hand, when it comes to the United States, the comparative advantage is specialised as well as capital-intensive labour. This implies that American workers can produce sophisticated goods at a lower opportunity costs. In this regard, specialising and trading along these metrics benefits each other to considerably.

Many economists as well as scholars have argued that the role of comparative advantage in international trade cannot be overlooked. Taking this into account, it has been argued that comparative advantage the theory of comparative advantage has been found to justify the existence of free trade when it comes to international trade.  Free trade typically advocate for complete absence of import restrictions such as quotas as well as tariffs. Free trade also encompasses zero subsidization for export industries.  In regards to this, in relation to the theory of comparative advantage, when labourers of one country enhances specialisation in terms of where they have the lowest opportunity costs, the industries involved are normally able to achieve economies of scale. Besides, in such circumstances, such industries are able to become innovative to a considerable extent. With such, the increase in production normally causes prices of goods and services to decline. Consumers usually see their actual costs of livings decline when cheap domestic goods are combined with cheap foreign goods. As a result, the standard of living of people living in the country is improved formidably.

It has been demonstrated by the theory of comparative advantage that even when a country is superior in the production of various goods and services, it could be still be beneficial for countries to trade[3]. This is due to the fact that in most cases, there is usually a country that is able to produce goods and services in a more efficient manner. Therefore, with the theory of comparative advantage in place, it has been found that that countries can trade more efficiently if they specialise on what they can do best, with the least cost. Consequently, countries with the same free trading block can be in a position of producing their products cheaply, while importing other products or services cheaply. This plays a fundamental role in not only improving the standard of living of people in the involved countries, but also their overall economic growth.

When there is existence of free trade, it has been argued by various scholars that the comparative advantage can play a fundamental role in helping developing countries that do not have any comparative advantage. In this perspective, it is arguable that most developing countries such as those in the Sub-Saharan Africa typically do not have comparative advantage due to various factors such as limited technology and other resources. Therefore, when there is free trade, these countries can be able to import goods cheaply from other countries. This as a result plays a profound role in enhancing the standard of living in those countries. This notwithstanding, some scholars have not subscribed to that school of thought in the sense that they indicate that it can some countries may become over dependent on others[4].  Consequently, such countries may significantly suffer in case free trade policies are not in their favour.

Conclusively, this essay has established that the theory of is fundamental in international trade. Taking this into account, it has been revealed from the essay that comparative advantage in relation to international trade refers to the ability of a country to produce goods or services at a lower opportunity cost than other countries.  The theory of comparative advantage typically upholds that if countries specialise in producing goods and services where they have a relatively lower opportunity cost, then there will be a significant enhancement in the economic welfare.  In this light, it implies that through comparative advantage, countries can be in a position of produce goods cheaply, while importing goods cheaply. Therefore, the theory of comparative advantage makes a convincing case for free trade.

 

 

Bibliography

Baldwin, R., & Robert-Nicoud, F. (2014). Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework. Journal of International Economics92(1), 51-62.

Cuñat, A., & Melitz, M. J. (2012). Volatility, labor market flexibility, and the pattern of comparative advantage. Journal of the European Economic Association10(2), 225-254.

Deardorff, A. V. (2011). Comparative advantage and international trade and investment in services. In Comparative Advantage, Growth, And The Gains From Trade And Globalization: A Festschrift in Honor of Alan V Deardorff (pp. 105-127).

Neary, J. P. (2016). International trade in general oligopolistic equilibrium. Review of International Economics24(4), 669-698.

 

 

[1] Baldwin, R., & Robert-Nicoud, F. (2014). Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework. Journal of International Economics92(1), 51-62.

 

[2] Cuñat, A., & Melitz, M. J. (2012). Volatility, labor market flexibility, and the pattern of comparative advantage. Journal of the European Economic Association10(2), 225-254.

 

[3] Neary, J. P. (2016). International trade in general oligopolistic equilibrium. Review of International Economics24(4), 669-698.

 

[4] Deardorff, A. V. (2011). Comparative advantage and international trade and investment in services. In Comparative Advantage, Growth, And The Gains From Trade And Globalization: A Festschrift in Honor of Alan V Deardorff (pp. 105-127).

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